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hybrid(hī`brĭd), term applied by plant and animal breeders to the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species, and by geneticists to the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic (see geneticsgenetics,
scientific study of the mechanism of heredity. While Gregor Mendel first presented his findings on the statistical laws governing the transmission of certain traits from generation to generation in 1856, it was not until the discovery and detailed study of the
..... Click the link for more information. ). The mulemule,
hybrid offspring of a male donkey (see ass) and a female horse, bred as a work animal. The name is also sometimes applied to the hinny, the offspring of a male horse and female donkey; hinnies are considered inferior to mules.
..... Click the link for more information. , the hybrid steer, and hybrid corn are examples of hybrids produced by breeders, but some animal species may cross-breed in the wild, as the gray wolf and coyote sometimes do. Hybridization between cultivars or varieties is often used in agriculture to obtain greater vigor or growth (heterosis). Hybrid vigor is achieved by crossing two inbred strains (see breedingbreeding,
in agriculture and animal husbandry, propagation of plants and animals by sexual reproduction; usually based on selection of parents with desirable traits to produce improved progeny.
..... Click the link for more information. ). The first generation shows greatly increased vigor and a better yield primarily because many genes for recessive, often deleterious, traits from one parent are masked by corresponding dominant genes in the other parent.
sexual offspring produced by the crossing of two genotypically different organisms. The organisms crossed are called parental forms and are designated by the letter P. The maternal form or female individual is designated by the symbol ♀ , the paternal form or male individual by the symbol ♂, crossing by the symbol ×, hybrid offspring of the first generation by F with the subscript 1 (F1), second generation by F2, and so forth. For example, the F4 hybrid of ♀(beardless wheat) Bezostaia 1 × ♂ Belotserkovskaia 198 is the fourth generation of the hybrid in which the maternal form was Bezostaia 1 and the paternal form Belotserkovskaia 198. Hybrids may be spontaneous or artificial, intraspecific or remote. The following hybrids are distinguished in breeding corn: the intervarietal, when two varieties are crossed; the variety-line hybrid, when a variety is crossed with an inbred line (for example, to produce the hybrid Bukovinskii 3: ♀ Gloriia lanetskogo × ♂ VIR 44); the single cross hybrid, from the crossing of two strains (for example, the hybrid Slava is produced by crossing the inbred lines ♀ VIR 44 ×♂ VIR 38); and the double cross hybrid from crossing two simple hybrids (for example, the hybrid VIR 42 is produced by crossing ♀ Slava × ♂ Svetoch).
D. M. SHCHERBINA
hybrid(1) Products that combine two or more different technologies. For data and software hybrids, see hybrid file, hybrid app and hybrid mobile app. For hardware hybrids, see hybrid laptop, hybrid computer, hybrid cloud, eSATA USB Hybrid Port, hybrid smartwatch, hybrid drive, hybrid circuit and hybrid microcircuit.
(2) Also known as a "termination" or "term set," a hybrid is a device that adapts a two-wire telephone line from a home or business into a four-wire trunk at the telco central office. Hybrids also exist within the telephone handset, converting the two-wire line into four wires: two for the speaker; two for the microphone. See echo cancellation.