hydrocarbon

(redirected from Hydrocarbons)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Hydrocarbons: Aromatic hydrocarbons

hydrocarbon

(hī'drōkär`bən), any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series. The alkanesalkane
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only single bonds (see chemical bond). Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2.
..... Click the link for more information.
 are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first and simplest member of this series is methane, CH4; the series is sometimes called the methane series. Each successive member of a homologous series of hydrocarbons has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms in its molecule than the preceding member. The second alkane is ethane, C2H6, and the third is propane, C3H8. Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2 (where n is an integer greater than or equal to 1). Generally, hydrocarbons of low molecular weight, e.g., methane, ethane, and propane, are gases; those of intermediate molecular weight, e.g., hexane, heptane, and octane, are liquids; and those of high molecular weight, e.g., eicosane (C20H42) and polyethylene, are solids. Paraffin is a mixture of high-molecular-weight alkanes; the alkanes are sometimes called the paraffin series. Other homologous series of hydrocarbons include the alkenesalkene
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds (see chemical bond). Alkenes with only one double bond have the general formula CnH2n.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and the alkynesalkyne
, any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds (see chemical bond). Alkynes with one triple bond have the general formula CnH2n−2.
..... Click the link for more information.
. The various alkyl derivatives of benzenebenzene
, colorless, flammable, toxic liquid with a pleasant aromatic odor. It boils at 80.1°C; and solidifies at 5.5°C;. Benzene is a hydrocarbon, with formula C6H6.
..... Click the link for more information.
 are sometimes referred to as the benzene series. Many common natural substances, e.g., natural gas, petroleum, and asphalt, are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The coal tar obtained from coal by coking is also a mixture of hydrocarbons. Natural gas, petroleum, and coal tar are important sources of many hydrocarbons. These complex mixtures can be refined into simpler mixtures or pure substances by fractional distillation. During the refining of petroleum, one kind of hydrocarbon is often converted to another, more useful kind by cracking. Useful hydrocarbon mixtures include cooking gas, gasoline, naphtha, benzine, kerosene, paraffin, and lubricating oils. Many hydrocarbons are useful as fuels; they burn in air to form carbon dioxide and water. The hydrocarbons differ in chemical activity. The alkanes are unaffected by many common reagents, while the alkenes and alkynes are much more reactive, as a result of the presence of unsaturation (i.e., a carbon-carbon double or triple bond) in their molecules. Many important compounds are derived from hydrocarbons, either by substitution or replacement by some other chemical group or element of one or more of the hydrogen atoms of the hydrocarbon molecule, or by the addition of some element or group to a double or triple bond (in an unsaturated hydrocarbon). Such derivatives include alcohols, aldehydes, ethers, carboxylic acids, and halocarbons.

Hydrocarbon

(HC)
Chemical compound consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen.

Hydrocarbon

 

any of a class of organic compounds consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Depending on their structure, a distinction is made between acyclic, or aliphatic, hydrocarbons, in which the carbon atoms are bound to one another in linear or branched chains, and isocyclic, or carbocyclic, hydrocarbons, the molecules of which form rings consisting of three or more carbon atoms. Isocyclic hydrocarbons in turn are divided into alicyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons.

Acyclic hydrocarbons are divided into saturated compounds, which contain only single bonds (the parent compound of the family being methane), and unsaturated compounds, which contain double and triple bonds. Unsaturated hydrocarbons may have one double bond (olefins), two double bonds (dienes), or one triple bond, as in acetylene. The distinction between saturated and unsaturated compounds also applies to alicyclic hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons form homologous series, which are typified by the regularity of the differences between the various members’ physical and chemical properties.

hydrocarbon

[¦hī·drə′kär·bən]
(organic chemistry)
One of a very large group of chemical compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen; the largest source of hydrocarbons is from petroleum crude oil.

hydrocarbon

any organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen, such as the alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, terpenes, and arenes
References in periodicals archive ?
The acquisition, first announced August 5, includes Hytracc s 100 skilled staff who provide specialist consulting, software implementation and support services within the hydrocarbon supply chain.
Dubai: Excessive dependence of Gulf economies on the hydrocarbon sector could potentially become a major vulnerability to their economies and sovereign credit strength, but among the GCC oil exporters, the UAE is ahead of the rest according to Standard & Poor's Rating Services.
Advances in clean hydrocarbon fuel processing; science and technology.
Results were fairly similar, with some hydrocarbons a little higher in the West Valley tests and some a little lower, officials said.
Lin Yan and George Helou of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and their colleagues used an infrared spectrometer on the Spitzer Space Telescope to find the hydrocarbons in distant galaxies that undergo spurts of intense star formation.
In this article we illustrate how research in our laboratory and others over the past 10-15 years has advanced our knowledge of hydrocarbons and their degradation under anaerobic conditions.
MarkWest Hydrocarbon announced today that it has executed agreements with Equitable Production Company that restructures their processing relationship in Appalachia.
In the polyisocyanurate (PLR) board-stock market, where cost and the need for a liquid blowing agent system are more crucial, hydrocarbons and their blends are now the preferred choice.
As for Ray's second claim, hydrocarbons contribute to increasing the level of ozone in smog by a very indirect route.
At about 400-1100F, coal evolves--or volatilizes--into gases, most of which are hydrocarbons.
The next time you use a gallon of oil-based paint, you will release into the air about the same volume of hydrocarbons a top-quality auto emits when driven 5,000 miles.
The use of petroleum waxes to protect or assist in the protection of double bonded elastomers from the destructive effects of ozone has long been known, while the mechanism by which these petroleum hydrocarbons fulfill their protective functions has more recently been elucidated, and can be followed by the analytical technique of high temperature gas chromatography.