Furthermore, this species has a peculiar type of hydrochory
in addition to autochory.
For example, barochory (primary dispersal) could be followed by myrmecochory or hydrochory (secondary dispersal).
However, secondary amenochory and hydrochory cannot be ruled out from these accounts.
In order to evaluate the importance of ichthyochory and hydrochory in the seed dispersal process we compared the number of seedlings produced between the FMS and a soil seedbank study performed in the a neighboring area (Pagotto et al., 2011).
Hydrochory and regeneration in a bald cypress-water tupelo swamp forest.
is probably of neglectable importance, and ichthyochory is responsible for long distance dispersal helping to colonize new habitats.
, population dynamics and distribution of the clonal aquatic plant Ranunculus lingua.
Angiosperms have evolved a multitude of external dispersal adaptations, including wind (anemochory), water (hydrochory
), animal (zoochory), and self-dispersal (autochory; Fenner, 1985).
is probably another important way of seed dispersal in riparian palms that often form oligarchic populations close to rivers and lakes (Goulding & Smith, 2007).
Fruits are relatively large (2 by 2.5 mm), corky, and buoyant (Affolter, 1985); thus, hydrochory
is expected to be the main mechanism of dispersal.
Fruits are relatively large (2 by 2.5 mm), corky, and buoyant (Affolter, 1985) and, for this reason, hydrochory
is expected to be the main dispersal mechanism.
Though thistles are usually wind- or animal-dispersed, clearly Cirsium vinaceum is capable of hydrochory
. There are several cases of normally wind-dispersed species whose seeds travel effectively by water (e.g., Telenius and Torstensson, 1989; Thebaud and DeBussche, 1991).