Hydrolases


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Related to Hydrolases: Isomerases, Ligases, Lyases, Acid hydrolases

Hydrolases

 

a class of enzymes that catalyze reactions of hydrolytic decomposition (with the participation of water) of intramolecular bonds (hydrolysis). Hydrolases are widespread in plant and animal cells. They participate in processes of metabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and other biologically important substances. Depending on the type of bond hydrolyzed, hydrolases are divided into a number of subclasses: hydrolases acting on ester bonds (for example, lipase), glucoside bonds (amylase), peptide bonds (pepsin), and acid-anhydride bonds (adenosine triphosphatase).

By their chemical nature, most hydrolases are simple proteins. The presence of unaltered sulfhydryl groups (SH—) with a definite place in the polypeptide chain is necessary for the appearance of their catalytic activity. A number of hydrolases are produced in crystalline form (urease, pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin). The mechanism of the catalytic action of some hydrolases that have been studied includes the addition of an enzyme, with decomposition of the substance followed by splitting off of the reaction products and liberation of the enzyme. It has been shown that in the mechanisms of enzymatic hydrolysis there is much in common with the action mechanism of transferase and that some hydrolases can transfer the groups being split off not only to water but also to other molecules.

E. I. KOROLEV

References in periodicals archive ?
In that report, 12 clones exhibiting CMCase activity and 11 clones revealing 4-methylumbelliferyla-D-cellobioside (MUC) hydrolase activity were detected.
The company has created a proprietary platform, based on technology developed at The Scripps Research Institute by Professors Ben Cravatt and Dale Boger, that specifically targets serine hydrolases with selective small molecules.
Shen, "The potential role of ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolases in oncogenesis," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol.
Isoenzymatic activity differences of single biocatalysts are more readily balanced by combining uniformly acting hydrolases of varying origins
Two years after the last fire activities FDA hydrolases are 40% more low (P less than 001) in a soil not burned for at least 20 years (Figure 3).
The enzymes involved in hydrolysis of glycosidic bods in carbohydrates are called glycoside hydrolases (GH).
This collaboration with Abide Therapeutics illustrates our ongoing commitment to enable potentially disruptive technologies in the hands of talented drug hunters, here deployed in unique and powerful approach to target a validated but largely underexplored class of serine hydrolases," said Thomas Daniel, M.
Screening and separation of industrially useful hydrolases from the wasteful skim latex serum of Hevea brasiliensis, The 4th ICCBE in Conjunction with The 26th Symposium of MCE, UMS, Sabah, pp: 799-808.
The heart of the system, known as activity-based protein profiling, is a chemical probe that binds to glycoside hydrolases and gives off information indicating just how active each of those enzymes is moment by moment.
The researchers have used a set of compounds, recently synthesized by Cravatt's laboratory, that tend to inhibit serine hydrolases.