Hydrolases


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Related to Hydrolases: Isomerases, Ligases, Lyases, Acid hydrolases
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hydrolases

 

a class of enzymes that catalyze reactions of hydrolytic decomposition (with the participation of water) of intramolecular bonds (hydrolysis). Hydrolases are widespread in plant and animal cells. They participate in processes of metabolism of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and other biologically important substances. Depending on the type of bond hydrolyzed, hydrolases are divided into a number of subclasses: hydrolases acting on ester bonds (for example, lipase), glucoside bonds (amylase), peptide bonds (pepsin), and acid-anhydride bonds (adenosine triphosphatase).

By their chemical nature, most hydrolases are simple proteins. The presence of unaltered sulfhydryl groups (SH—) with a definite place in the polypeptide chain is necessary for the appearance of their catalytic activity. A number of hydrolases are produced in crystalline form (urease, pepsin, trypsin, and chymotrypsin). The mechanism of the catalytic action of some hydrolases that have been studied includes the addition of an enzyme, with decomposition of the substance followed by splitting off of the reaction products and liberation of the enzyme. It has been shown that in the mechanisms of enzymatic hydrolysis there is much in common with the action mechanism of transferase and that some hydrolases can transfer the groups being split off not only to water but also to other molecules.

E. I. KOROLEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The lead molecule ABX-1431 is a potent selective inhibitor of the serine hydrolase monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) that potentiates endocannabinoid signalling to restore homeostatic balance in the central nervous system.
Purification and Characterization of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase from Aspergillus niger ATCC 16620.
A novel maltotriose hydrolyzing thermo-acidophilic pullulan hydrolase type III from Thermococcus kodakarensis.
Beta-actin (aa 27-375), gamma-actin, alpha-internexin, beta-synuclein, and unnamed protein product, and the 9 proteins with decreased expression levels were identified as tubulin beta-5 chain, NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1, atp5b protein, partial, gamma-enolase isoform 1, calretinin, heme-binding protein, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1, COP9 signalosome complex subunit 4, and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (Table 3).
In total, 39 unique oxylipid metabolites derived from cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP), soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), and nonenzymatic (NE) pathways were quantified in the urinary bladder at the early (6 h) and late (48 h) stages after experimental inoculation of UPEC and ABEC (Table 1).
Davies, "Conserved catalytic machinery and the prediction of a common fold for several families of glycosyl hydrolases," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) is the enzyme responsible for bile salt deconjugation during enterohepatic circulation in healthy people.
Radiometric solvent-partitioning assay for screening cocaine hydrolases and measuring cocaine levels in milligram tissue samples.
They cover considerations for applying process technologies in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale biocatalysis for chemical synthesis; cytochrome P450 progress in biocatalysis for synthetic organic chemistry; using hydrolases and related enzymes for synthesis; non-redux lyases and transferases for forming bonds of carbon with carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen; oxidations; reductions; halogenation and dehalogenation; cascade reactions; and biocatalysis for industrial process development.
ABX-1431, which was discovered with Abide's proprietary technology platform targeting serine hydrolases, has completed dosing in a first-in-human study assessing the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of the molecule in single-ascending and multiple-ascending doses in healthy volunteers.
Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.