Hydrologic Forecasts

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hydrologic Forecasts


scientific predictions (of varying amounts of time in advance) of the development of a process occurring in a river, lake, or reservoir.

According to the character of the elements of the regimen being forecast, hydrologic forecasts are divided into water forecasts and ice forecasts. Water forecasts predict the volume of seasonal and flood runoff, maximum discharges of water and high-water or flood levels, average water discharges for various calendar periods, and the time of the maximum high-water level. Ice forecasts predict the times of breakup and freezing over of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs and the thickness of ice. Hydrologic forecasts may be short-range—for a period of up to 15 days—and long-range—for a period of 15 days to several months in advance. In terms of their purpose, distinctions are drawn between forecasts for hydroelectric power (inflow of water into the reservoirs of hydroelectric stations), for water transportation (forecasts of the water level on navigable rivers), and for irrigation (fore-casts of river runoff during the growing period). Hydrologic forecasting is one of the principal divisions of applied hydrology.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Given that precipitation is a primary forcing in hydrologic models, an increased focus on improving quantitative precipitation forecasts is needed; improving the reliability of short-term to seasonal hydrologic forecasts, through better computational and data resources, and new space- and ground-based observations must also be a priority.
Therefore, Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is the most commonly used variable in hydrologic forecasts in snow-prone areas.
The NOAA NWM automatically integrates meteorological data from operational weather radars and multiple numerical weather prediction systems and produces hydrologic forecasts at a range of time scales.
Nonetheless, the satellite data provide useful information for validating the hydrologic forecasts, especially if their corresponding time scales and uncertainties are well
However, owing to deficiencies in land surface hydrologic parameterizations and/or land surface initializations of CGCMs, the hydrologic forecast products (e.g., soil moisture, runoff) from global seasonal prediction models cannot be directly used for applications.
(2014)] provides an opportunity to advance the hydrologic forecast over most GEWEX RHP basins.
(2012) for short--to medium-range hydrologic forecasts and Kang et al.
Such a wide range of applications requires forcing inputs and hydrologic forecasts at multiple space-time scales and for multiple forecast horizons: from minutes for flash flood predictions in fast-responding basins to years for water supply forecasts over larger areas (see examples in McEnery et al.
Diagnostic verification of hydrologic forecasts needs to be routinely performed by scientists and operational forecasters to improve forecast quality (Welles et al.

Full browser ?