Hydroxides


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Related to Hydroxides: carbonates, Sulfides

Hydroxides

 

chemical compounds formed from oxides of elements and water; one of the main classes of inorganic compounds. Hydroxides are often called oxide hydrates, a name that does not correspond to the nature of hydroxides, since they do not contain separate water molecules. “Hydroxides” is the term that has been adopted in modern international nomenclature.

Hydroxides of almost all chemical elements are known. The hydroxides of many metals are bases, and the hydroxides of nonmetals are oxygen acids. The chemical properties of the bases are determined by the presence of the hydroxyl ion, OH"; those of the acids are determined by the hydrogen ion, H+. This is in accord with the particular way in which the formulas for acids and bases are written—for example, Ba(OH)2 and H2SO4. Hydroxides that have both basic and acidic properties are called amphoteric. The nature of a hydroxide depends on the position of the element in the Mendeleev periodic system. In practice the term “hydroxide” is used only for bases and amphoteric hydroxides.

References in periodicals archive ?
Summary: TEHRAN (FNA)- Iranian chemists from Tarbiat Moallem University of Azarbaijan succeeded in the precise measurement of salicylic acid drug in the solid phase extraction from biological media by using nickel-aluminum layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.
The pH can be adjusted by using potassium hydroxide (KOH) and/or potassium hydroxide + ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) or sodium hydroxide.
MagShield magnesium hydroxides for flame-retardant/smoke-suppressant applications.
When formulating depilatories, calcium thioglycolate may be formed in situ by reacting thioglycolic acid with an excess of calcium hydroxide (as shown in the formula below).
In both cases, ferric oxide hydroxide appeared as a solid product along with some organic matter.
The report contains an in-depth analysis of the European Union market for hydroxide and peroxide of Magnesium; Oxides, hydroxides and peroxides of strontium or barium, covering EU total and local markets.
Supplies Satex brominated flame retardants for epoxies, engineering thermoplastics, high-impact polystyrene and foams, rigid and flexible urethane foam, or unsaturated polyester applications; Antiblaze phosphorus flame retardants in rigid foams or insulation, flexible foams for home and travel furnishings, textiles, and applications for low-fogging needs; Martinal aluminum hydroxide flame retardants for polymers with processing temperatures to 392 F; and Magnifin magnesium hydroxide flame retardants for thermoplastics and elastomers requiring higher process temperatures up to 644 F.
Functional fillers, ranging from inexpensive calcium carbonates and kaolin clays to surface treated magnesium hydroxide flame retardants and acicular wollastonites, are said to have been essential components in the development of cost-effective filled polymer composites in use today.
RESUME: THE WORLD TRADE OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS AND HYDROXIDES (2003-2008)
Beyond the chemical purity, the attributes that meaningfully differentiate hydroxides used as rubber additives are particle size and reactivity.
RESUME: THE WORLD TRADE IN QUATERNARY AMMONIUM SALTS AND HYDROXIDES (2000-2006)
The report will be of considerable interest primarily to relevant strategic planners, senior company officials and importers/exporters, since it features invaluable information on Copper Oxides And Hydroxides export/import operations segmented by country and region.