Hydroxides


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hydroxides

 

chemical compounds formed from oxides of elements and water; one of the main classes of inorganic compounds. Hydroxides are often called oxide hydrates, a name that does not correspond to the nature of hydroxides, since they do not contain separate water molecules. “Hydroxides” is the term that has been adopted in modern international nomenclature.

Hydroxides of almost all chemical elements are known. The hydroxides of many metals are bases, and the hydroxides of nonmetals are oxygen acids. The chemical properties of the bases are determined by the presence of the hydroxyl ion, OH"; those of the acids are determined by the hydrogen ion, H+. This is in accord with the particular way in which the formulas for acids and bases are written—for example, Ba(OH)2 and H2SO4. Hydroxides that have both basic and acidic properties are called amphoteric. The nature of a hydroxide depends on the position of the element in the Mendeleev periodic system. In practice the term “hydroxide” is used only for bases and amphoteric hydroxides.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first significant reference to the use of magnesium hydroxide as a rubber chemical is a paper presented at the 1985 Rubber Division meeting in Los Angeles [ref.
Offers a complete line of flame retardants, including antimony oxide, zinc borate, solid and liquid chlorinated paraffins, alumina trihydrate, magnesium hydroxide, and phosphate ester plasticizers.
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Tert-butylperoxy 2-ethylhexyl carbonate (TBEC) (95%) (Sigma-Aldrich), sodium hydroxide (99%) (Exodo), calcium chloride (96%) (Ecibra), ethanol (99.5%) (Synth), copper(II) nitrate hemi(pentahydrate) (98%) (Sigma-Aldrich), zinc nitrate hexahydrate (98%) (Sigma-Aldrich), stearic acid (95%) (Sigma-Aldrich), azelaic acid (85%) (Sigma-Aldrich), myristic acid (99%) (Sigma-Aldrich), polyethylene glycol monolaurate (PEG monolaurate) ([M.sub.n] approximately 400 g/mol) (Sigma-Aldrich), silicone fluid (350 cps) (Dow Corning), and release compound (used in the injection procedure) (Dow coming) were of analytical grade and used as received.
Figure 1 shows the FTIR spectra of the isolated layered double hydroxides. The characteristic absorption band for the water molecules was observed in all the compounds.
Metal hydroxides are among the most commonly used flame retardants worldwide.
of China petroleum; polyethylene grafted by maleic anhydride (PE-1040) was supplied by Guangzhou aiqing sea additive Co; ordinary magnesium hydroxide (analytical reagent) was supplied by Tianjin Institute of Fine Chemicals (particle size 0.5-2.0 [micro]m); ultrafine magnesium hydroxide was prepared in our laboratories (particle size 100-200 nm).
"The results indicated the high performance of the suggested solid phase extraction method by using layered double hydroxide nanoadsorbents in the real sample analysis and its desirable accuracy."
Martinal aluminum hydroxide flame retardants for polymers with processing temperatures to 392 F; and Magnifin magnesium hydroxide flame retardants for thermoplastics and elastomers requiring higher process temperatures up to 644 F.
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* Magnifin magnesium hydroxide flame-retardant fillers with a processing temperature to 340 C.
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