Hydroxy Acids

Hydroxy Acids

 

(or hydroxycarboxylic acids), organic compounds containing one or more carboxyl (—COOH) and hydroxyl (—OH) groups per molecule. Examples are glycolic acid, HOCH2COOH; α-hydroxypropionic (lactic) acid, CH3CH(OH)COOH; and β-hydroxypropionic (hydracrylic) acid, HOCH2CH2COOH. Hydroxy acids are extremely reactive compounds. They readily undergo dehydration upon heating to form various products, depending on structure, as follows: (1) α-hydroxy acids yield lactides (cyclic esters), (2) β-hydroxy acids form unsaturated acids, (3) γ- and δ-hydroxy acids yield inner esters (lactones).

Hydroxy acids may be prepared by oxidation of glycols containing at least one primary –OH group, by saponification of hydroxynitriles, and by reaction of nitric acid and amino acids. Hydroxy acids and their derivatives are widespread in nature. Another commercially valuable hydroxy acid is o-hydroxybenzoic acid (salicylic acid), whose derivatives are used as pharmaceuticals and in the manufacture of azo dyes.

References in periodicals archive ?
'Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) and beta hydroxy acids (BHAs) are both naturally occurring organic acids that help exfoliate skin,' says Chavez.
Alpha hydroxy acids such as lactic acid improves melasma by inhibiting tyrosinase enzyme directly therefore suppressing melanin formation.25 It also increases keratinocyte turnover and decrease corneocyte cohesion thereby decreasing stratum corneum thickness which hastens the resolution of melasma.25 This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of lactic acid peeling in melasma.
Research in Cosmetic Dermatology showed it was as effective as glycolic for treating sun damage but it's far gentler than other alpha hydroxy acids.
Research in Cosmetic Dermatology showed it was as effective as glycolic for treating sun damage, but it's far gentler than other alpha hydroxy acids.
Key ingredients are glycerin, lactic acid, urea, hyaluronic acid and alpha hydroxy acids. These creams do not contain heavier oils.
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are well suited for use by individuals with dry skin because hydroxy acids act as humectants (water-soluble materials with high water absorption capabilities).
Based in Princeton, N.J, NeoStrata's innovation includes breakthrough research in Alpha hydroxy acids, which have become a standard among anti-aging technologies in the beauty category.
They include alpha hydroxy acids, which can also increase the thickness of deeper layers of skin, promoting skin firmness.
* Daily exfoliating cream that contains Alpha Hydroxy Acids help to encourage continuous exfoliation of the outer layers of the skin and avoiding blockage of the follicles which is the primary cause of acne.
The clinically proven products are the only moisturizers with the combination of alpha and beta hydroxy acids, ceramides, niacinamide, and urea, says Clark.
It falls into the set of ingredients called AHA's, or alpha hydroxy acids. Glycolic acid is probably the most common alpha hydroxy acid and has the reputation of being one of the safest forms of alpha hydroxy acid.
Functional agents currently include alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), poly-AHAs, complex poly-AHAs, retinoids, fish polysaccharides, anti-enzymatic agents, antioxidants (including ascorbic acid, pycnogenol, ursolic acid, vegetable isoflavones, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid, resveratorol, l-carnosine, and taurine) as well as agaricic acid and various plant extracts.