Hydroxylamine


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hydroxylamine

[‚hī‚dräk′sil·ə‚mēn]
(inorganic chemistry)
NH2OH A colorless, crystalline compound produced commercially by acid hydrolysis of nitroparaffins, decomposes on heating, melts at 33°C; used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hydroxylamine

 

H2NOH, is the product of the replacement of one hydrogen atom in the ammonia molecule (NH3) by an OH group. It forms colorless acicular crystals. Density, 1,204.4 kg/m3 (at 23.5° C); melting point, 33°-34° C; boiling point, 58° C at 2.933 kilonewtons per sq m (22 mm Hg). Hydroxylamine is stable at 0° C; at 20° C it decomposes slowly. An increase in temperature accelerates the decomposition, and at 130° C it explodes.

Hydroxylamine is hygroscopic. It dissolves readily in water to form hydroxylamine hydrate, which is a weak base: NH2OH·H2O ⇆ NH3OH+ + OH. Upon reaction with acids, hydroxylamine hydrate gives hydroxyammonium salts—for example, NH3OHCl and (NH3OH)2SO4—which have strong reducing properties. Hydroxylamine dissolves readily in methyl and ethyl alcohols but is insoluble in acetone, benzene, and petroleum ether. It is oxidized by atmospheric oxygen to HNO2. Hydroxylamine sulfate is produced industrially by reducing sodium nitrite with sulfur dioxide in the presence of sodium carbonate. Free hydroxylamine is produced by distilling alkaline solutions of the salts. Hydroxylamine and its derivatives are poisonous. Salts of hydroxylamine are extensively used in the pharmaceutical industry, in making kapron, and in analytical chemistry.

REFERENCE

Brikum, I. K., M. T. Kozlovskii, and L. V. Nikitina. Gidrazin igidroksilamin i ikh primenenie v analiticheskoi khimii. Alma-Ata, 1967.

V. S. LAPIK

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, both hydroxylamine and HEPES are dual agents, with reducing and shape capabilities.
Briefly, a solution of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and NaOH with alkaline pH (~10) is used as reducing agent of the silver salt.
Afterwards, hydroxylamine hydrochloride was added to convert the obtained copolymer into poly (amidoxime-hydroxamic) acid resin.
Abbreviations ATP: Adenosine triphosphate CP-H: Cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-carboxy 2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine hydrochloride EPR: Electron paramagnetic resonance ETS: Electron transfer system hAM: Human amniotic membrane hAMSCs: Human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells HGF: Hepatocyte growth factor IL: Interleukin iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase MMP: Matrix metalloproteinase Mn-SOD: Manganese superoxide dismutase mtDNA: Mitochondrial DNA NF: Nuclear factor P-hAMSCs: Placental amnion-derived hAMSCs RA-hAMSCs: Reflected amnion-derived hAMSCs ROS: Reactive oxygen species STAT: Signal transducers and activators of transcription.
Abbreviations: HAO, hydroxylamine dehydrogenase; NIR, nitrite reductase; NOR, nitric oxide reductase.
Recovery of the plutonium from the organic phase needs introduction of hydroxylamine nitrate (N[H.sub.3]O[H.sup.+] x N[O.sub.3.sup.-]) or HAN that is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III).
Additive Function of additive Grinding aid (O1) Grinding aid/energy saving Grinding aid (O2) Grinding aid/energy saving Strength enhancer (E) Early-age strength enhancer Strength enhancer (N) Final-age strength enhancer Additive Raw material Density Grinding aid (O1) Polyethanolamine acetate 1.14 Grinding aid (O2) Polyethanolamine acetate 1.12 modified with glycol Strength enhancer (E) Modified hydroxylamines 1.15 Strength enhancer (N) Modified hydroxylamines 1.16 Additive PH Color Grinding aid (O1) 6-7 Light brown Grinding aid (O2) 6-7 Brown Strength enhancer (E) 10-12 Brown Strength enhancer (N) 11-12 Brown TABLE 3: Results of ANOVA test for Blaine fineness (significance level-[alpha] = 0.05).
This oxidation may be carried out through two metabolic routes: one which is present only in fungi, and another, very similar to autotrophic nitrification, in which heterotrophic microorganisms have an ammonium-monooxygenase enzyme, and one hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, similar to the autotrophic route, which oxidizes ammonium in a secondary manner, since these enzymes evolved to oxidize compounds such as propylene, benzene, phenol, methanol, and any other non-polar organic compound that serves as a source of carbon and energy (Bitton, 2005; Eldor, 2007).
For the preparation of the oxime derivative 4,amixtureof 3 and hydroxylamine hydrochloride was refluxed in presence of anhydrous sodium acetate [17].
Acetylation was carried out with 10 mg of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and 0.5 mL of pyridine for 30 min at 90[degrees]C.
A solution of furo[2,3-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one 3 (1.5g, 5mmol) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (0.34 g, 5mmol) in pyridine (10 mL) was heated under reflux for 3 hrs.
Alkaline hydroxylamine reagent [3.5 N sodium hydroxide and 2 M hydroxylamine in HCl] was added to the supernatant.