Hyksos


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Hyksos

(hĭk`sōs) [Egyptian,=rulers of foreign lands], invaders of ancient EgyptEgypt
, Arab. Misr, biblical Mizraim, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2005 est. pop. 77,506,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa and SW Asia.
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, now substantiated as the XV–XVIII dynasties. They were a northwestern Semitic (Canaanite or Amorite) people who entered Egypt sometime between 1720 and 1710 B.C. and subdued the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom. They used Avaris-Tanis in the Nile delta as their capital rather than the Egyptian capital of Thebes. Under their hegemony, which lasted over a century, they established a powerful kingdom that included Syria and Palestine, and maintained peace and prosperity in their territories. They introduced the horse-drawn chariot and the composite bow, and their successful conquests were furthered by a type of rectangular fortification of beaten earth used as a fortress; archaeologists have uncovered examples of these mounds at Jericho, Shechem, and Lachish. Their most important contribution was perhaps the introduction into Egypt of Canaanite deities and Asian artifacts, which were instrumental in abrogating the despotism and isolationism of the Old and Middle kingdoms. The Hyksos were crushed by Amasis I at the battle of Tanis in 1550 B.C.

Hyksos

 

a group of Asiatic tribes that crossed the Isthmus of Suez from Southwest Asia into Egypt and conquered it in about 1700 B.C. The word “Hyksos” in Egyptian first referred to kings of foreign countries (“shepherd rulers”), but later came to denote the whole group of tribes. The true ethnic name of the Hyksos is unknown; their ethnic composition was highly mixed, judging from the presence of both Semitic and Hurrian names. They settled in Lower Egypt, where they established their capital, Avaris. They were the first to introduce horse breeding and the wheel as a means of transportation into Egypt. They simplified the Egyptian written language by creating purely alphabetical writing. In the beginning of the 16th century a liberation movement was begun in Egypt against the Hyksos, headed by Seqenenre II, the ruler of Thebes, and later by Kamose. The struggle was completed by Pharaoh Ahmose I (ruled in the years 1584-59), who captured Avaris. The surviving Hyksos fled to Palestine, and nothing is known about their fate thereafter.

REFERENCE

Lapis, I. A. “Novye dannye o giksosskom vladychestve v Egipte.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1958, no. 3.

D. G. REDER

References in periodicals archive ?
The extensive migration into Egypt of Canaanites is now in full swing, a development that was later to lead to the Hyksos takeover of the northern part of the country (ca.
The Hyksos rule Egypt--and Gaza--until they are driven out in the late 16th century.
Asfar said the discovery suggested that the rule of the Hyksos did not extend to all of Egypt and that a native dynasty managed to preserve its independence in the south.
Como ya hemos senalado, se han encontrado en Avaris, (capital de los hyksos durante el II Periodo Intermedio, en el Delta Oriental del Nilo), un conjunto de pinturas murales con la tecnica del fresco.
However, by the time of the Arabs the Egyptian civilization had existed for nearly 3000 years as an African civilization, invaded at times by Hyksos, Persians, Assyrians, Greeks, and Romans, speaking and writing an African language often called mdwKam, the language of Kemet, the African name for ancient Egypt (Greek origin aegyptos) (Asante, 2007).
There is a list of illustrations in each of the two volumes, short biographies of the authors, acknowledgements, abbreviations, a selected chronology (but no rulers for the Second Intermediate or Hyksos period are included) and two maps for Egypt and Nubia (again separated between pharaonic and Greco-Roman Egypt) at the beginning.
After their experience with the Hyksos invaders, the Egyptians began to value the Land of Canaan for its strategic location vis-Ea-vis foreign powers in the north who might have challenged Egypt again.
Egypt has been without democracy for the past thirty years, and from 1952, 1799 and the departure of Napoleon from Egypt, and ever since the time of pharaohs and the Hyksos.
One theory posits that they were Hyksos, people who came from northern Syria and were later expelled from Egypt.
The site was ancient Avaris, capital of the Hyksos, and it was also a major harbor town and international trading center.
THE discovery of a 3,500 year- old city in the Nile delta by Austrian archaeologists has renewed international interest in the rise and fall of the Hyksos, who ruled ancient Egypt for a little over 100 years.
Archaeology chief Zahi Hawass said in a statement Sunday that the area could be part of Avaris, the summer capital of the Hyksos, invaders from Asia that ruled Egypt from 1664-1569 B.