Hyksos


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Hyksos

(hĭk`sōs) [Egyptian,=rulers of foreign lands], invaders of ancient EgyptEgypt
, Arab. Misr, biblical Mizraim, officially Arab Republic of Egypt, republic (2015 est. pop. 93,778,000), 386,659 sq mi (1,001,449 sq km), NE Africa and SW Asia.
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, now substantiated as the XV–XVIII dynasties. They were a northwestern Semitic (Canaanite or Amorite) people who entered Egypt sometime between 1720 and 1710 B.C. and subdued the pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom. They used Avaris-Tanis in the Nile delta as their capital rather than the Egyptian capital of Thebes. Under their hegemony, which lasted over a century, they established a powerful kingdom that included Syria and Palestine, and maintained peace and prosperity in their territories. They introduced the horse-drawn chariot and the composite bow, and their successful conquests were furthered by a type of rectangular fortification of beaten earth used as a fortress; archaeologists have uncovered examples of these mounds at Jericho, Shechem, and Lachish. Their most important contribution was perhaps the introduction into Egypt of Canaanite deities and Asian artifacts, which were instrumental in abrogating the despotism and isolationism of the Old and Middle kingdoms. The Hyksos were crushed by Amasis I at the battle of Tanis in 1550 B.C.

Hyksos

 

a group of Asiatic tribes that crossed the Isthmus of Suez from Southwest Asia into Egypt and conquered it in about 1700 B.C. The word “Hyksos” in Egyptian first referred to kings of foreign countries (“shepherd rulers”), but later came to denote the whole group of tribes. The true ethnic name of the Hyksos is unknown; their ethnic composition was highly mixed, judging from the presence of both Semitic and Hurrian names. They settled in Lower Egypt, where they established their capital, Avaris. They were the first to introduce horse breeding and the wheel as a means of transportation into Egypt. They simplified the Egyptian written language by creating purely alphabetical writing. In the beginning of the 16th century a liberation movement was begun in Egypt against the Hyksos, headed by Seqenenre II, the ruler of Thebes, and later by Kamose. The struggle was completed by Pharaoh Ahmose I (ruled in the years 1584-59), who captured Avaris. The surviving Hyksos fled to Palestine, and nothing is known about their fate thereafter.

REFERENCE

Lapis, I. A. “Novye dannye o giksosskom vladychestve v Egipte.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1958, no. 3.

D. G. REDER

References in periodicals archive ?
Led by a priest of Lunu also known as Onu and Heliopolis who was also a follower of Akhenaton, the 'leprous' sought the help of the shepherds (the Hyksos) of Jerusalem, but could not standup against the army of Egypt, and thus, thus they were forced to run away into the desert.
The Hyksos rule Egypt--and Gaza--until they are driven out in the late 16th century.
After their experience with the Hyksos invaders, the Egyptians began to value the Land of Canaan for its strategic location vis-Ea-vis foreign powers in the north who might have challenged Egypt again.
One theory posits that they were Hyksos, people who came from northern Syria and were later expelled from Egypt.
The site was ancient Avaris, capital of the Hyksos, and it was also a major harbor town and international trading center.
THE discovery of a 3,500 year- old city in the Nile delta by Austrian archaeologists has renewed international interest in the rise and fall of the Hyksos, who ruled ancient Egypt for a little over 100 years.
Archaeology chief Zahi Hawass said in a statement Sunday that the area could be part of Avaris, the summer capital of the Hyksos, invaders from Asia that ruled Egypt from 1664-1569 B.C., during the 15th Dynasty.
Paradoxically, the desire to keep control of Kemet from settlers both inside and outside; the invasions from the Hyksos, Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, and finally today's current Arab inhabitants, destroyed this African civilisation.
Pero incluso en esa situacion, la incorporacion al estudio, por ejemplo, del Segundo Periodo Intermedio, o epoca de dominacion de los hyksos, de los resultados de las excavaciones realizadas en las ultimas decadas en el yacimiento de Tell el Daba, emplazamiento de Avaris, capital de estos, ha arrojado luz sobre numerosos interrogantes de este periodo.
We might like to disregard the Assyrian, Nubian, Hyksos, Persian, Macedonian and Roman conquests of Egypt which are probably forgiven if not forgotten.
Ancient Egyptians came and went, as did the Hyksos, the Assyrians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Ottomans, the British, and now the Israelis.