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the philosophical doctrine that all matter is animated. The term was introduced in the 17th century.

Hylozoism dates from the very beginning of philosophy and occurs in the Ionian school of natural philosophers— Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. Heraclitus, Emped-ocles, and the stoics were close to hylozoism, and elements of it were included in Aristotle’s teachings. During the Renaissance, it appeared again in the teachings of the Italian natural philosophers B. Telesio and G. Bruno, Paracelsus, and others. Spinoza studied thought as a quality present in all of nature, as an attribute of matter. After him several French materialists, such as Diderot, Robinet, and Des-champs, acknowledged the general animation of matter. E. Haeckel defended a point of view similar to hylozoism.

According to hylozoism, life and hence sensitivity are present in all things in nature, in all forms of matter. Opposed to this philosophy is dialectical materialism, which considers sensation a property of only highly developed organic matter.

References in periodicals archive ?
Rather the Comprehensive as a spiritual idea comes closer to what Jaspers calls hylozoism, and perhaps closer still to the idea of an emergent geocentric divinity that is found in the work of Tielhard de Chardin.
Over several decades he refined a peculiar brand of materialistic Monism, based partly on Darwin, inflected by a socialism derived in part from Marx, and influenced by Spinozan pantheism--a "volatile" mixture of "materialism, mechanism, hylozoism, idealism and, to some degree, vitalism" (Holt 1971:268).
However, careful examination of Kant's proof of the specific causal principle in the Foundations reveals that his key premise rests not on metaphysical analysis, but on our empirical ignorance of any instances of hylozoism.
With hyle meaning "matter" and zoe meaning "life," Hylozoism is the doctrine "that energy is inherent in matter itself, and not dependent on any influx from outside, or in other words on extranatural influence.
Lewins writes of Naden "resolving" Hylozoism into her own creed of Hylo-Idealism (Part IV, p.