Hylozoism


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Hylozoism

 

the philosophical doctrine that all matter is animated. The term was introduced in the 17th century.

Hylozoism dates from the very beginning of philosophy and occurs in the Ionian school of natural philosophers— Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. Heraclitus, Emped-ocles, and the stoics were close to hylozoism, and elements of it were included in Aristotle’s teachings. During the Renaissance, it appeared again in the teachings of the Italian natural philosophers B. Telesio and G. Bruno, Paracelsus, and others. Spinoza studied thought as a quality present in all of nature, as an attribute of matter. After him several French materialists, such as Diderot, Robinet, and Des-champs, acknowledged the general animation of matter. E. Haeckel defended a point of view similar to hylozoism.

According to hylozoism, life and hence sensitivity are present in all things in nature, in all forms of matter. Opposed to this philosophy is dialectical materialism, which considers sensation a property of only highly developed organic matter.

References in periodicals archive ?
Both claims are possible together thanks to his hylozoism, that is akin to Newton's alchemical animism of the years 1670.
An additional argument would be needed in order to hiearchize hylozoism (matter alive), animism (spirited matter), panpsychism (mindful matter), and panexperientialism (it is a matter of degree).
Rather the Comprehensive as a spiritual idea comes closer to what Jaspers calls hylozoism, and perhaps closer still to the idea of an emergent geocentric divinity that is found in the work of Tielhard de Chardin.
In addition to accounts of seventeenth century Christian hylozoism, monist and vitalist philosophies, and land-use polemics, Poetry and Ecology suggests another possible source of sustenance for ecological thought during this period: empiricism.
Queneau's hylozoism has a multitude of precedents, the most venerable being Plato's insistence that the world is "a living being with soul and intelligence" in the Timaeus, and the most striking, the notes Andre Chenier made for his unfinished verse cosmogony Hermes (Plato 43, Andrews 64-65).
With hyle meaning "matter" and zoe meaning "life," Hylozoism is the doctrine "that energy is inherent in matter itself, and not dependent on any influx from outside, or in other words on extranatural influence.
Although Haeckel did not articulate his "volatile Monistic mixture--of materialism, mechanism, hylozoism, idealism, and to some degree, vitalism" as an official religion until the period 1904 to 1919 (Holt 268), Perojo was clearly attracted to the early monism that would eventually inspire Haeckel's proselytism.
Referred to as hylozoism, this view of life is so general as to be meaningless.
The entire middle section of Zammito's book is to be recommended both for its extensive discussion of the often neglected second half of the Third Critique, as well as for its treatment of teleology against the backdrop of Kant's critique of contemporary science and its attendant concept of hylozoism.
The former, entitled "Hylozoic Poetry: The Lives of Plants," introduces the theological concept of hylozoism, building upon its OED definition as "the theory that matter is endowed with life.
The problem for the ancients was life and organism, and thus their works contain numerous manifestations of animism and hylozoism.