Hyoscyamus


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Hyoscyamus

 

a type of mainly biennial and annual grassy plants of the nightshade family (Solanaceae). There are some 20 species in Europe, Asia and Africa (outside the central portion) and on the Canary Islands. In the USSR there are eight species of which the most important is black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger), a biennial that grows abundantly in empty lots, along roads, and sometimes as a weed in fields.

In the first year, only a rosette of root leaves develops, and in the second, a foliated, floriferous stalk, 20–115 cm high. The whole plant is softly furred, sticky, with an unpleasant odor. The crown is dirty yellow with violet veins. The fruit is a bilocular, ascidiform pod.

The fruit is prepared as a medicinal raw material in the Ukraine, in the Voronezh Oblast, in the Middle Volga region, and other regions. It has been put under cultivation. Several species of the related genus Physochlaina (puzyrnitsa), also called henbane, are found in the USSR. Siberian henbane (Physochlaina physaloides) is a perennial that grows on the stony steppe slopes of Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East, Middle Asia, Northern Mongolia, Northern China, and Japan. Its roots and leaves contain up to 0.25 percent alkaloids. The plants and seeds of all species of Hyoscyamus are very poisonous; they contain the alkaloids hyoscyamine, atropine, and scopalamine.

Extracts of henbane leaves (as powders or pills) are used for medical purposes as antispasmodics and analgesics in some diseases of the digestive tract and of the respiratory tract. Ground henbane leaves enter into the composition of Astmatol. Henbane oil, which is used for rubbing in as an analgesic in contusions and sciatica, for instance, is obtained from the henbane plant. Henbane poisoning is characterized by severe excitation, dilatation of the pupils, hallucinations, and delirium; death is possible. First aid in poisoning calls for irrigation of the stomach with a suspension of activated carbon and a potassium permanganate solution, then saline laxatives, and strong tea and coffee.

REFERENCE

Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
The emollient of Sosagoras (17) for pain in joints contains calcined lead, poppy tears, hyoscyamus bark, sulphurwort, suet, pine resin and beeswax, equal parts [trans.
les especes du groupe C, fortement consommees et moyennement frequentes (Schouwia thebaica, Tribulus terrester, Hyoscyamus muticus, Heliotropium ramosissimum, Boerhaarvia repens et Fagonia bruguieri;
2002) en sus trabajos sobre la posicion y las relaciones de parentesco de algunos generos de Solanaceae, Anisodus, Atropa, Hyoscyamus y Pzelwalzkia.
Sin embargo, el registro fosil de Hyoscyamus niger (beleno negro) durante la Prehistoria europea es muy escaso, reduciendose a unas cuantas semillas recuperadas en yacimientos de diversas cronologias (Guerra 2002b), por lo que es francamente arriesgado y muy improbable interpretar su presencia en contextos prehistoricos en terminos de su uso alucinogeno.
Additional Mediterranean relicts in the rock crevices are Galium incanum, Rubia tenuifolia, Ephedra foeminea, Ononis natrix, Ballota saxatilis, Hyoscyamus aureus, Piptatherum miliaceum, and Urginea maritima.
Ancient Egyptians were using alkaloid plants such Hyoscyamus niger, pomegranate (Punica granatum), poppy (Papaver somniferium) and henbane (Wink 1998: 13; Baumann 1986; Gessner 1974; Mann 1992).
Pain relief and sedation in Roman Byzantine texts: Mandragoras officinarum, Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna, 43-50.
He demonstrated its reversible hypnotic properties in hens (xvii) and he also contrasted its different pharmacological action with those of the more poisonous opium, Hyoscyamus (henbane), Papaver (poppy) and Mandragora (xviii), urging his pupils 'They--the sulphura--have the effect of producing so quiet and mild a sleep that they can be used without any ill consequences.
Hyoscyamus - For those with Increased sexual desire.
tabacum, Datura innoxia, Hyoscyamus muticus, Solanum aviculare, Senecio longolobus, and Phalaris aquatica, among others (Ball & Hoveland, 1978; Waller & Nowacki, 1978; Campbell & Seaborn, 1972; Gershenzon, 1984).
Podophyllin is also significant as an alterative, purgative, emetic and when given in conjunction with belladonna and Hyoscyamus it acts as a bitter tonic (Allevi et al.
It was very clear that the correct medicine was Hyoscyamus (henbane), classic for this type of foolish, immodest, silly, shameless behavior.