Signs including rounding of lid margins, notching of lid margins, vascularity of lid margins, hyperkeratinization
, plugging of orifices, main duct dropout, and conjunctival congestion showed a positive correlation with OSDI score (P < 0.005), while main duct number (central 1 cm) and BUT showed a negative correlation with OSDI score (P < 0.001).
, identified in three cases, might indicate chronicity of the allergic skin disease (IHRKE, 2009).
These anatomic abnormalities are thought to be caused by the hyperkeratinization
of the follicular infundibulum, which can lead to dilatation and rupture and release of bacteria within the dermis (40).
Compared with haired mice, hairless mouse strains (hr/hr mutants) are very sensitive to TCDD-induced lesions characteristic of chloracne, including epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratinization
and involution of the sebaceous glands (Puhvel and Sakamoto 1988).
Acne vulgaris is a common dermatological condition characterized by hormonally-mediated sebum overproduction, follicular hyperkeratinization
, and chronic inflammation of the pilosebaceous unit.
Increases of this hormone are believed to promote acne via hyperkeratinization
, he said.
Acne is a multifactorial disease involving a combination of hyperkeratinization
in the sebaceous follicles, excess sebum production, and overgrowth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes.
There are 3 types of acne: comedonal, papulopustular, and nodular (Table 1), all of which result from a multifactorial pathophysiologic process in the pilosebaceous unit: (1) sebum production, (2) follicular hyperkeratinization
, (3) proliferation and colonization by Propionibacterium acnes, and (4) the release of inflammatory mediators.
The most obvious signs of zinc deficiency in swine are growth retardation and thickening, roughening, and hyperkeratinization
of the skin (parakeratosis).
"Studies have suggested that, in hidradenitis suppurativa, atrophy of the sebaceous glands, follicular hyperkeratinization
, and subsequent hair follicle destruction are associated with deep-seated inflammation, increased susceptibility to secondary infections, and chronic perpetuation of the inflammatory response," the researchers wrote.
In addition, the follicle contains immune response mechanism protecting invasion of foreign substances and may respond in an inflammation reaction that will result in hyperkeratinization
, will clog the pore and prevent further penetration.
It involves four main processes which include hyperkeratinization
of the pilosebaceous follicles, increased sebum production, increased propionobacterium colonization and inflammation.