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Any disease of the brain.



a collective term that designates a noninflammatory organic disease of the brain. Some encephalopathies are innate, resulting from embryopathy. Others are the result of infection, poisoning, trauma, or vascular disease of the brain. There are no specific manifestations. The most common encephalopathies resemble neuroses (asthenia, irritability, insomnia, headaches) or psychoses (narrowed scope of interests, passivity, emotional instability, vulgarity). Symptoms may include memory loss or mental deterioration.

Alcoholic encephalopathies are alcoholic psychoses. They may be acute, as in Wernicke’s encephalopathy (named for the German neuropathologist C. Wernicke, who described the condition in 1881), or chronic, as in Korsakov’s psychosis (named for S. S. Korsakov) and alcoholic pseudoparalysis. Lead encephalopathy is caused by chronic poisoning by lead salts.

Treatment for encephalopathies depends on the cause of the disease.

References in periodicals archive ?
To evaluate effects of such perturbations on mortality ( defined as death within hospital, irrespective of cause) or morbidity (emergence of 4 categories as hypertensive encephalopathy, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Lab proven Myocardial Infarction and negative pulmonary edema) within the stipulated hospitalization time of 10 days.
Same studies recommend the discontinuation of intravenous nitroglycerin, which is a widely-used therapy for acute hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy. Vasodilators, i.e.
A Hypertensive encephalopathy is a brain swelling caused by a sudden, severe, and persistent elevation in blood pressure in people who have uncontrolled high blood pressure.
The ischemic heart condition associated with incorrect administration of antihypertensive drugs (the maximal blood pressure--BP around 200 mmHg) lead to the development of hypertensive encephalopathy phenomena, requiring hospitalization.
The most popular hypothesis is related to hypertensive encephalopathy [33].
A Hypertensive encephalopathy is a swelling of the brain caused by a sudden, severe, and persistent elevation of blood pressure in individuals who have uncontrolled high blood pressure.
She was subsequently diagnosed with hypertensive encephalopathy (a neurological dysfunction caused by hypertension)," said Pam Gouri, hospital coordinator of Valley of Love.
Eclampsia is a common aetiology, but there are also associations with hypertensive encephalopathy, renal failure and the use of cytotoxic and immunosuppressant drugs (6).
There is no consensus in the literature regarding the causative factors, but hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, metabolic disorders, and iatrogenic or toxic agents have all been implicated in the etiology (2-5).
In this nationwide review of complications from eclampsia in the Netherlands, the authors found that failure to treat persistent severe hypertension was associated with hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral infarction, bleeding, or congestive heart failure.
While the pathogenesis remains poorly understood, clinical entities with hypertension as a component, such as hypertensive encephalopathy, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, renal failure, as well as general anesthesia, systemic lupus erythematosus and several chemotherapeutic agents (cyclosporine, cisplatin, tacrolimus) are known etiologic causes.

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