Hypervitaminosis


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hypervitaminosis

[‚hī·pər‚vīd·ə·mə′nō·səs]
(medicine)
Condition caused by intake of toxic amounts of a vitamin.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Hypervitaminosis

 

intoxication produced by sharply increased doses of vitamins A and D. (The possibility of developing hypervitaminosis in relation to other vitamins has not been firmly established.)

Hypervitaminosis D develops in children after introduction of doses of vitamin D higher than 50,000 IU per day, and in adults of 100,000-150,000 IU per day. Hypervitaminosis in adults is most often acute, accompanied by stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation; kidney function is drastically disturbed and hypertension, headaches, and pains in the bones and muscles also appear. In children the symptoms are the same but less sharply pronounced. Treatment involves discontinuation of vitamin D intake, abundant liquids, saline infusion, and administration of glucose, ascorbic acid, and vitamin E.

Hypervitaminosis A develops after ingesting products (for example, polar bear liver) or preparations rich in vitamin A. In adults it is manifested by severe headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and peeling of the skin of the face and body. Chronic hypervitaminosis A may develop in children after ingestion of a large quantity of vitamin A preparations; it is manifested by dry, rough, itching skin and the development of hard, shell-like, deep, and painful swellings on the forearms and (less often) on the hands and feet. Enlargement of the liver is sometimes observed. Recovery begins after discontinuation of vitamin A intake.

REFERENCES

Efremov, V. V. “Toksichnost’ vitamina A. Toksichnost’ vitamina D.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po vnutrennim bolezniam, vol.8. Editor in chief, E. M. Tareev. Moscow, 1965. Pages 488 and 625.

V. V. EFREMOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
But due to absence of clear guidelines for the replacement strategies of VD in deficient states, there is inadvertent use of higher doses of VD in patients usually by repeated injectable mega doses of cholecalciferol resulting in hypervitaminosis D and toxicity.
Krueger, "Hypervitaminosis A and bone," Nutrition Reviews, vol.
Osteomyelitis, chronic hypervitaminosis A, scurvy and child abuse are common differentials.
Serum retinol level tests have limitations in assessing an individual's vitamin A status because they are homeostatically controlled, and only reflect vitamin A liver stores at the extremes of deficiency or hypervitaminosis (4).
Correcting a misrepresentation of hypervitaminosis A attributed to Herbalife product consumption.
Headache, vomiting, loss of appetite, dry and scaly skin, bone and joint pain, nerve and liver damage, abnormal bone growth, and birth defects are symptoms of hypervitaminosis A.
(6) Many authors have also suggested hereditary involvement as an autosomal dominant trait with reduced penetrance, trauma and environmental factors such as thalidomide, embryopathy, fetal alcohol exposure or hypervitaminosis. (7, 8) Others believed that fusion results from embryological persistence of the inter-dental lamina between 2 germs.
Microscopic examination of dead budgerigars later in the course of the investigation revealed mineralization of soft tissues consistent with hypervitaminosis D.
[15] The symptoms of hypervitaminosis D appear several months after administration of overdoses of vitamin D, which are dehydration, vomiting, decreased appetite, irritability, constipation, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
Hypercalcemia (elevated calcium in the blood) is also noted in a variety of conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, hypervitaminosis D, bone neoplasms, milk-alkali syndrome (seen in patients who ingest large amounts of milk or alkali for relief of gastric acidity associated with peptic ulcer disease), sarcoidosis, thyrotoxicosis, multiple myeloma, and polycythemia rubra vera.
(2) Primary hyperphosphatemic Tumoral Calcinosis characterized by a defect in phosphate resorption and (3) Secondary Tumoral Calcinosis: these patients have a concurrent disease that causes soft tissue calcification such as chronic renal failure with a secondary hypervitaminosis D, hyperparathyroidism and bone destruction.