Injury to the hypothalamus from tumor, surgery, or other cause can induce problems with REM sleep: sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucination
, sleep onset REM period, and muscle atonia.
In this case the initial presentation of hypnagogic hallucinations
and clinicians' failure to understand the relevance of the patient's reports (and her parents' report) of excessive sleep lead to the repeated incorrect diagnosis of different types of atypical epilepsy and to inappropriate treatment with antiepileptic medications, despite the absence of EEG evidence of epilepsy.
Q I have depression, and recently I started experiencing occasional hypnagogic hallucinations
The symptoms experienced by the patient in this case are also phenomenologically similar to hypnagogic hallucinations
. It is estimated that approximately 70% of the population experiences hallucinations at least once while transitioning from wakefulness to sleeping .
Narcolepsy is characterized by excessive sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis during the rapid eye movement period of sleep.
Narcolepsy is an obstinate neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns.
The patient was a six-year-old girl whose parents reported all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy--paroxysmal sleep, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations
, and sleep paralysis--but she was misdiagnosed as having atypical epilepsy (despite the absence of EEG evidence) and a variety of other diagnoses by several internists and neurologists at eight hospitals over a period of 10 months before the correct diagnosis was confirmed by conducting a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and an overnight polysomnography (PSG).
The temporal sequence of pathology postulated in PD [82, 83] and in DLB 84]--from the medulla upwards through the brainstem, to the substantia nigra, the limbic structures including the amygdala, and finally the neocortex--is consistent with preclinical RBD and hypnagogic hallucinations
preceding the onset of parkinsonism and cognitive impairments in some DLB patients .
[bar] HYPNOPOMPIC or HYPNAGOGIC HALLUCINATIONS
: "This is were people suffer from a kind of hallucination just as they are drifting off to sleep or waking up.
* Hypnagogic hallucinations
. These vivid, often frightening, dreamlike experiences occur while dozing or falling asleep.
Narcolepsy is a primary sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with one or all of the following: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
and nocturnal sleep disturbance.