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Hypnagogic hallucinations are vivid, sometimes realistic, dream imagery that occurs just as a person is going to sleep.
While CNS stimulant drugs are prescribed to control the EDS associated with narcolepsy, tricyclic antidepressant drugs are prescribed to control cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations.
The cardinal symptoms include paroxysmal sleep (100%), cataplexy (70%), hypnagogic hallucination (25%), and sleep paralysis (5%).
Narcolepsy is a syndrome consisting of four symptoms: excessive sleepiness, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and cataplexy.
sodium oxybate) to combat cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
Narcolepsy is an obstinate neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns.
The patient was a six-year-old girl whose parents reported all four cardinal symptoms of narcolepsy--paroxysmal sleep, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis--but she was misdiagnosed as having atypical epilepsy (despite the absence of EEG evidence) and a variety of other diagnoses by several internists and neurologists at eight hospitals over a period of 10 months before the correct diagnosis was confirmed by conducting a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and an overnight polysomnography (PSG).
While excessive daytime sleepiness generally persists throughout life, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations may not.
Narcolepsy is a primary sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with one or all of the following: cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and nocturnal sleep disturbance.
The classic tetrad of symptoms for narcolepsy includes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and hypnagogic hallucinations (8).