Being so thick, the walls can incorporate heating pipes, and hypocausts
feature in at least two of his projects.
Then there's the construction of the forts themselves with their running water, bath houses, hypocausts
and ventilated granaries.
Beginning with the excavated floor flues of ancient Korea and moving on to the Greek and Roman hypocausts and similar systems used in the Middle East (1) and then to the subsequent disappearance of European systems post-Roman Empire and to the continual evolution in Asia and radiant floor heating's rebirth by the French and British at the turn of the 19th century, the history of radiant systems is a parallel study within anthropology, archaeology and architecture.
Greeks and later Romans scale up the use of conditioned surfaces (floors and walls) with the hypocausts.
5) It is during the time of the Zhou dynasty when Europe records its history of the hypocaust (see Part 2 in the next issue).
2) Additionally, the use of floor heating in ancient European and Middle Eastern lands was widespread with variations of the hypocaust found in Afghanistan, (3) Syria, (4) and other countries.
With the exception of late antiquity hypocaust type systems in the Middle East, Europe's use of floor heating went into hibernation for many centuries while systems in Korea, China and parts of Japan continually evolved.
Also during this period we see the beginning of the end for hypocaust type systems when King Edward VII laid the foundation stone in 1904 to what was to become Liverpool Cathedral.