Hypoglossal Nerve


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Related to Hypoglossal Nerve: glossopharyngeal nerve

hypoglossal nerve

[¦hī·pə¦gläs·əl ′nərv]
(neuroscience)
The twelfth cranial nerve; a paired motor nerve in tetrapod vertebrates innervating tongue muscles; corresponds to the hypobranchial nerve in fishes.

Hypoglossal Nerve

 

the 12th pair of cranial nerves. The hypoglossal nerve originates from the nerve cells that form its motor nucleus, which are located in the brain stem at the medulla oblongata. The appendages of the nerve cells unite in ten to 15 rootlets between the pyramid and the olive. Upon merging in a common trunk, they depart from the skull through the hypoglossal canal into the occipital bone. After leaving the skull, the hypoglossal nerve forms an arch and, at the anterior end of the hyoglossal muscle, branches into terminal branches, which innervate the musculature of the tongue. When a disorder of hypoglossal nerve exists, the corresponding half of the tongue becomes paralyzed, and the tongue muscles atrophy.

References in periodicals archive ?
Gonzalez-Toledo, "Two-year-old with post-surgical hypoglossal nerve injury and obstructive sleep apnea," Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol.
The hypoglossal nerve is the sole motor innervator of the tongue; denervation atrophy of the tongue can result in significant changes of the tongue [15].
The most common cause is a tumor in the innervation path of the hypoglossal nerve, followed by trauma.
Atlantoaxial synovial cyst causing isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve paralysis.
The device comprises a stimulation lead placed around the distal hypoglossal nerve, a pulse generator implanted subcutaneously below the clavicle in the upper chest, and a respiration-sensing lead inserted between the fourth and fifth ribs--implanted under general anesthesia.
During ND, the surgeons should pay attention to the integrity and the saving of many neural structures (spinal nerve, hypoglossal nerve, lingual nerve, and phrenic nerve) that, if damaged, would complicate the postoperative course of the patient.
Washington, Nov 26 (ANI): Hypoglossal nerve stimulation system (HGNS) can provide significant relief from upper airway obstruction during sleep to patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by increasing the airflow, a new study has revealed.
The rest of the mass was dissected from under the digastric muscle, well above the hypoglossal nerve and sectioned proximally.
However, those passing through the posterior occipital somites are affected by the caudal most cephalic crest mesenchymal population at the posterior pharyngeal region and thus give rise to the hypoglossal nerve prepattern (Mackenzie et al., 1998).