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see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.


Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)


Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
Even though it was the first study of its kind in India to study the influence of pioglitazone on the body weight and BMI on both its monotherapy as well as its combination therapy with other hypoglycemic agents, in all possible dosing commonly prescribed.
Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) has potentiated the adverse effects of the monoamine oxidase inhibitors, enhanced the effect of oral hypoglycemic agents, decreased the effects of immunosuppressants and had an additive effect with benzodiazepines.
Among surgical patients, the use of oral hypoglycemic agents significantly declined from 77% at baseline to 18% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years.
Diabetes was diagnosed in the study participants based on the past medical history, pharmacological therapy for diabetes (oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin), and/or criteria outlined by the World Health Organization.
Participants randomized into the study were all on a treatment regimen for their diabetes, which could include either diet alone, up to two oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin alone, or insulin with no more than one oral agent.
Oral hypoglycemic agents, including sulfonylureas, metformin, and thiazolidinediones, are commonly used for therapy.
Use of oral hypoglycemic agents is discouraged for most hospitalized patients, although it may be acceptable in certain stable patients who are eating.
There is an urgent need to develop novel, inexpensive hypoglycemic agents to treat and arrest the rapid spread of this debilitating disease.
Crouch studied 73 similar patients, who were also on hypoglycemic agents and no exogenous insulin.
STZ-induced hyperglycemia has been described as a useful experimental model for studying the activity of hypoglycemic agents (Junod et al.