Similarly, high flow through streams can cause the surrounding wet areas of the hyporheic
zone to increase in area, with some channels being 'reactivated' after long periods without summer flow.
exchange, and selection of spawning habitat by bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus).
Although these taxa could have come from upstream perennial water sources, they also could have come from other sources, such as cryptobiotic states (e.g., the tadpole shrimp genus Triops) or the hyporheic
zone, or as transients on birds and other wildlife (e.g., the leech E.
Gravel extraction, and poor management catchment have altered the extent and ecological integrity of the hyporheic
zone in the area which caused the reduction of the dependent biodiversity, and this was largely attributed to sedimentation and pollution.
zone (HZ) is the interstitial active ecotone between the surface stream and ground water, where exchanges of water, biota, nutrients and organic matter occur (Orghidan, 1959; Schwoerbel, 1967; Boulton et al., 1998; Bencala, 2000, 2005).
Factors found to be statistically significant for brook trout success include: 1) stream velocities within the range of 1.4 to 4.7 cm/s; 2) high hydraulic conductivity of the headwater bedrock aquifer (K>4.7 x [10.sup.3] cm/s); 3) lighter average [[delta].sup.18]O [per thousand] (-9.8 to -10.4); 4) either high percent canopy cover (40 percent to 55 percent) or high percent instream cover (18 to 37 percent); 5) abundant cold-water adapted benthic macroinvertebrate taxa (10 tol 6 species); 6) yearly average hyporheic
water temperature of 4.6[degrees]C to 17.2[degrees]C; and 7) average surface water turbidity of 7 to 31 NTU.
Flow refugia have been documented in pools, backwaters, interstitial spaces, and hyporheic
zones (Brooks 1998; Palmer et al.
Lee, "Numerical verification of hyporheic
zone depth estimation using streambed temperature," Journal of Hydrology, vol.
Blaschke AP, Steiner K-H, Schmalfuss R, Gutknecht D, Sengschmitt D (2003) Clogging processes in hyporheic
interstices of an impounded river, the Danube at Vienna, Austria.
Kloep F, Roske I (2004) Transport of algal cells in hyporheic
sediments of the River Elbe (Germany).
For instance, a sampling of topics associated with streams includes the following; nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes, transient and hyporheic
zone storage, stream/floodplain interactions, stream restoration and streambank stabilization, fluvial processes, streambank erosion and failure, aquatic habitat studies, and maintaining environmental flows.