Paramount to brook trout viability is maintenance of stream temperature by influx of groundwater, in part through the hyporheic zone (the mixing zone between groundwater and surface water just beneath the stream bottom) (Constantz and Zellweger 1995).
This research also expanded previous ODNR and HSI metrics by additional study of the headwater aquifer, streambed lithology, precipitation, interaction at the groundwater/ surface water interface of the hyporheic zone, biology, stream velocity, spring discharge, stable isotopes, instream cover and canopy cover, as well as chemical, biological, and environmental factors affecting brook trout populations.
In order to study additional possible parameters contributing to brook trout success, various methods were used for sampling and monitoring the surface water streams, hyporheic zone, and springs (where present) of each of the eight streams.
The hyporheic zone could serve as a flow refugium for benthic invertebrates during times of flooding in the Kokosing River (Williams & Hynes 1974).
Response of invertebrates to lotic disturbance: is the hyporheic zone a patchy refugium?
Fox GA, Dumford DS (2003) Unsaturated hyporheic zone flow in stream/aquifer conjunctive systems.
Ryan RJ, Boufadel MC (2006) Influence of streambed hydraulic conductivity on solute exchange with the hyporheic zone.
For instance, a sampling of topics associated with streams includes the following; nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes, transient and hyporheic zone
storage, stream/floodplain interactions, stream restoration and streambank stabilization, fluvial processes, streambank erosion and failure, aquatic habitat studies, and maintaining environmental flows.
Stream reaches within unconfined valley segments have an additional alternating pattern of downwelling and upwelling vertical exchange of water and materials between the hyporheic zone
and surface stream.
Nutrient circulation and fate in the hyporheic zone
are monitored on a nearly real-time basis using a porewater multiplexer pumping system attached to automatic water quality probes.
They then shift to scientific jargon, talking about hyporheic zones
- those gravel areas alongside rivers where groundwater and river water mingle.
Ruffier is intrigued by what scientists call hyporheic zones
, gravelly areas beneath and next to rivers and streams that allow river water and groundwater to mix.