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Decreased olfactory sensitivity.



reduction of the sense of smell. Hyposmia may be effective for all odors or for just some, and it may be two-sided or one-sided. Hyposmia occurs with the impairment of nasal breathing, acute or chronic inflammations of the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity (due to the common cold), diseases of the peripheral part of the olfactory nerve, and afflictions of the olfactory center. Diagnosis is made by means of elementary odor tests or an olfactometer, a device that measures the keenness of the sense of smell. Therapy is ordinarily directed to elimination of the factor that has caused the hyposmia.


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Of the premotor symptoms, the PRIPS and PARS studies focused on hyposmia.
Based on hyposmia, infrequent bowel movement, slow reaction time, and excessive daytime sleepiness, the HAAS showed that 2 of the 24 individuals with more than three of these symptoms developed PD within 4.
The population-based HAAS showed that hyposmia was highly predictive of PD onset within 4 years after symptom assessment (Ross et al.
2001), and hyposmia is defined as a score below population norms.
PD patients also suffer from a wide range of non-motor symptoms--including hyposmia (poor sense of smell), gastroi ntestinal dysfunction, psychiatric features (e.
2007, 2009; Reichmann 2011); over time, this may lead to premotor symptoms such as hyposmia or constipation and may eventually progress to PD.
All studies found that the risk of hyposmia increases with age and is higher in men than in women (Bramerson et al.
Ritter contended that laryngectomy patients' sense of smell is intact and that their hyposmia is caused by insufficient inhalation of odorized air through the nose.
On the mechanism of hyposmia following laryngectomy in man.
3] In cases of hyposmia, a partial superior turbinectomy is performed to allow sufficient aeration to the superior meatus.
After recovery from surgery, the patient was able to breathe well through the nose, and all of his other preoperative symptoms, including hyposmia, had resolved.
All had a normal sense of smell according to the SOIT, although three had hyposmia (a reduced ability to smell and to detect odors) according to the 1-butanol test.