ensifer, and it has melanophores on the snout and upper jaw, on the isthmus, and on the hypural
margin, which are all lacking in S.
The formation of the hypurals
(H) 1, 2 and 3 began as cartilaginous primordia on the ventral side of the distal portion of the notochord (Fig.
During this stage, a row of 4 neuromasts along the margin of hypural
plates is noticeable (Fig.
Caudal region, hypural
regions, and all fins unpigmented.
For example, when using standard length, determination of where the caudal peduncle ends greatly depends on the individual reader and where they feel the hypural
Early flexion includes the interval from hatching until the formation of the 4th hypural
and epurals, at which point the specimen is considered midflexion.
is probably the result of fusion of the first two hypurals
(H1 and H2).
Vertebrae 9 + 16 + hypural
= 26; parapophysis developed from the sixth vertebra, its processes widely diverging, directed outward and downward.
(1998): body length (BL), distance from the tip of the snout to the notochord tip (in preflexion and flexion larvae), and to the posterior margin of the hypural
bones (postflexion larvae and posttransition juvenile); eye diameter (ED), longest diameter of the eye; snout length (SnL), distance from the tip of the snout to the anterior margin of the eye; head length, distance from the tip of the snout to the posterior margin of the opercle; body depth, vertical distance on pectoral fin base; preanal length, distance from the tip of the snout to the anus.
Lengths of specimens are given as standard length (SL) except estimates of total length (TL) of fishes photographed underwater; this is the straight-line measurement from the front of the upper lip to the base of the caudal fin (end of hypural
Dorsal fin X or XI, 16 or 17; anal fin III, 16; pectoral fin 19 or 20; Caudal fin: procurrent rays 4 + 4-5, segmented rays 8 + 8, middle 12 branched, total elements 24 of 25; fifth hypural
present or absent Vertebrae: 10 + 19; last pleural rib on vertebra 10; epineural ribs 12; one supraneural bone.