hysterectomy

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hysterectomy

(hĭstərĕk`təmē), surgical removal of the uterusuterus,
in most female mammals, hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops and from which it is delivered at the end of pregnancy. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 3 in. (7.
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. A hysterectomy may involve removal of the uterus only or additional removal of the cervix (base of the uterus), fallopian tubesfallopian tube
, either of a pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the paired ovaries in the human female, also called oviducts, technically known as the uterine tube.
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 (salpingectomy), and ovariesovary,
ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics.
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 (oophorectomy). It may be performed through a conventional abdominal incision or through the vagina. It is performed in cases of malignant tumors, endometriosis, prolapsed uterus, or fibroids that cause bleeding and pain. An emergency hysterectomy is sometimes necessary to end uterine hemorrhaging.

Removal does not physically interfere with sexual activity, but it does eliminate the uterine contractions of orgasm. It also eliminates the possibility of childbearing and precipitates menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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 in premenopausal women. Surgical removal of the ovaries eliminates their production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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 along with these hormones's protective benefits to the heart, bones, and skin.

Some women's health advocates have questioned what they feel is the overuse of hysterectomy in the United States, where it is the second most common surgical procedure. Some studies have judged that up to 25% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are unnecessary and that more conservative treatments (laparoscopic surgery, hormone therapy, or simple removal of fibroids) would suffice in these cases.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

hysterectomy

[‚his·tə′rek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of all or part of the uterus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
While the new study's analysis brings forward estrogen's potential in younger, hysterectomized women, guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) remain central to care.
"Decline in the use of (estrogen therapy) since 2002 has resulted in a significant increase in mortality for hysterectomized women aged 50 to 59 years," the authors concluded.
The decline continued despite the positive findings of WHI-ET, first published in 2004, then in 2011, showing that the absolute total mortality risk was reduced by 13 per 10,000 women per year among hysterectomized women aged 50-59 years who were using estrogen during the 10-year follow-up (JAMA 2011;305:1305-14).
Serum metabolites of pregnant and hysterectomized gilts fed two levels of energy.
(4) Who can forget the eye opener article in TOI in 2010 which stated that 80% of rural women were hysterectomized in Andhra Pradesh.
Previous reports indicated that serum FSH levels increased significantly in the hysterectomized group compared to the control group six months after the operation in human beings (4).
At baseline, all of the women had been postmenopausal for roughly 10 years, 30% had been hysterectomized, and all had an elevated vaginal pH, which is indicative of vaginal atrophy, said Dr.
This analysis of the WHI participants excluded all women with prior cholecystectomy or gallbladder disease; therefore, a total of 8,376 hysterectomized women were randomized to 0.625 mg/day of conjugated equine estrogens or placebo.
After this exclusion, 8,376 hysterectomized women were randomized to 0.625 mg/day of conjugated equine estrogens or placebo.
These cells were initially thought to be of endometrial origin; however, the occurrence of these cells in Pap tests from hysterectomized patients indicates a different origin.
In the Italian study, hysterectomized but otherwise healthy women aged 35 to 70 years were included (N = 5408).