hysterectomy

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hysterectomy

(hĭstərĕk`təmē), surgical removal of the uterusuterus,
in most female mammals, hollow muscular organ in which the fetus develops and from which it is delivered at the end of pregnancy. The human uterus is pear-shaped and about 3 in. (7.
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. A hysterectomy may involve removal of the uterus only or additional removal of the cervix (base of the uterus), fallopian tubesfallopian tube
, either of a pair of tubes extending from the uterus to the paired ovaries in the human female, also called oviducts, technically known as the uterine tube.
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 (salpingectomy), and ovariesovary,
ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual characteristics.
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 (oophorectomy). It may be performed through a conventional abdominal incision or through the vagina. It is performed in cases of malignant tumors, endometriosis, prolapsed uterus, or fibroids that cause bleeding and pain. An emergency hysterectomy is sometimes necessary to end uterine hemorrhaging.

Removal does not physically interfere with sexual activity, but it does eliminate the uterine contractions of orgasm. It also eliminates the possibility of childbearing and precipitates menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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 in premenopausal women. Surgical removal of the ovaries eliminates their production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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 and progesteroneprogesterone
, female sex hormone that induces secretory changes in the lining of the uterus essential for successful implantation of a fertilized egg. A steroid, progesterone is secreted chiefly by the corpus luteum, a group of cells formed in the ovary after the follicle
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 along with these hormones's protective benefits to the heart, bones, and skin.

Some women's health advocates have questioned what they feel is the overuse of hysterectomy in the United States, where it is the second most common surgical procedure. Some studies have judged that up to 25% of hysterectomies performed in the United States are unnecessary and that more conservative treatments (laparoscopic surgery, hormone therapy, or simple removal of fibroids) would suffice in these cases.

hysterectomy

[‚his·tə′rek·tə·mē]
(medicine)
Surgical removal of all or part of the uterus.

hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
References in periodicals archive ?
While the new study's analysis brings forward estrogen's potential in younger, hysterectomized women, guidelines from the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) remain central to care.
Major finding: A minimum of 18,600 and as many as 91,600 excess deaths occurred between 2002 and 2011 among hysterectomized women aged 50-59 years due to estrogen therapy avoidance.
Previous reports indicated that serum FSH levels increased significantly in the hysterectomized group compared to the control group six months after the operation in human beings (4).
Investigating the effects of estradiol or estradiol/progesterone treatment on mood, depressive symptoms, menopausal symptoms and subjective sleep quality in older healthy hysterectomized women: a questionnaire study.
At baseline, all of the women had been postmenopausal for roughly 10 years, 30% had been hysterectomized, and all had an elevated vaginal pH, which is indicative of vaginal atrophy, said Dr.
This analysis of the WHI participants excluded all women with prior cholecystectomy or gallbladder disease; therefore, a total of 8,376 hysterectomized women were randomized to 0.
After this exclusion, 8,376 hysterectomized women were randomized to 0.
These cells were initially thought to be of endometrial origin; however, the occurrence of these cells in Pap tests from hysterectomized patients indicates a different origin.
In the Italian study, hysterectomized but otherwise healthy women aged 35 to 70 years were included (N = 5408).
a randomized trial of testosterone enanthate to improve sexual function among hysterectomized women
This study analysis, emanating from the Yale School of Medicine, estimated that between 2002 and 2011 a minimum of about 18,000 and as many as about 91,000 excess deaths occurred among hysterectomized women aged 50 to 59 years who did not take Premarin[R].