Comparison of the hysteresis loops
for the S1100QL base material with the as-welded state of the butt joint (Figure 11, [[epsilon].sub.a] = 0.7 %) shows a bellied shape at a lower stress level for the AW state.
where [FORMULA NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] - average value of the hysteresis loop
's width; [k.sub.0] - semi-cycle of initial loading; [alpha.sub.2] and [C.sub.2] - material constants.
To evaluate the results given in Figures 3(b)-3(f), we can define the properties of a hysteresis loop
given in Figure 3(a) as (i) the abscissa deadband as the distance between the upper and lower points where the curve crosses the vertical line, (ii) the ordinate deadband as the distance between the leftmost and rightmost points where the curve crosses the horizontal line, and (iii) the hysteresis gradient as the ratio of change in restoring force to change in displacement.
Thirdly, a weak polar hysteresis loop
relation between the polarization and the external electric field of FS and RS for C[H.sub.3]N[H.sub.3]Pb[I.sub.3] film indicates that the C[H.sub.3]N[H.sub.3]Pb[I.sub.3] perovskite could potentially be a polar material.
In this paper, the parameters of J-A model are extracted from static hysteresis loop
. But the hysteresis loop
varies with the changes of temperature and the frequency of the excitation magnetic field.
5(b)-5(d) and their inserts, it can be suggested that in order to obtain a better demagnetization result, it is better for the entire structure to be fully saturated first, then decrease the applied field with a slower rate such that more cycles are applied to the structure and smaller minor hysteresis loops
can be formed, which eventually results in a smaller remanence.
To ease the comparison of the stiffness degradation, the secant stiffness of the hysteresis loop
K was normalized with the effective stiffness [K.sub.e] of the hysteresis envelope (Eqn (2)).
By comparison with undoped ZnO film, the Fe-doped ZnO films show hysteresis loops
, indicating the room-temperature ferromagnetism ofthin films.
of the powder samples were recorded in Lakeshore 7304 vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).
If the parameters [beta] = 0.5 , n=1, [??]=1 are set, then the variation of parameter [gamma] has the effect of turning the hysteresis loop
in clockwise, increasing the area of the hysteresis loop
and curved of backbone.
The dynamic modulus is defined as the ratio of stress difference to strain difference between the minimum and maximum point on the hysteresis loop
This material showed a hysteresis loop
H1 type  indicative of open cylindrical mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution.