Comparison of the

hysteresis loops for the S1100QL base material with the as-welded state of the butt joint (Figure 11, [[epsilon].sub.a] = 0.7 %) shows a bellied shape at a lower stress level for the AW state.

where [FORMULA NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] - average value of the

hysteresis loop's width; [k.sub.0] - semi-cycle of initial loading; [alpha.sub.2] and [C.sub.2] - material constants.

To evaluate the results given in Figures 3(b)-3(f), we can define the properties of a

hysteresis loop given in Figure 3(a) as (i) the abscissa deadband as the distance between the upper and lower points where the curve crosses the vertical line, (ii) the ordinate deadband as the distance between the leftmost and rightmost points where the curve crosses the horizontal line, and (iii) the hysteresis gradient as the ratio of change in restoring force to change in displacement.

Thirdly, a weak polar

hysteresis loop relation between the polarization and the external electric field of FS and RS for C[H.sub.3]N[H.sub.3]Pb[I.sub.3] film indicates that the C[H.sub.3]N[H.sub.3]Pb[I.sub.3] perovskite could potentially be a polar material.

In this paper, the parameters of J-A model are extracted from static

hysteresis loop. But the

hysteresis loop varies with the changes of temperature and the frequency of the excitation magnetic field.

5(b)-5(d) and their inserts, it can be suggested that in order to obtain a better demagnetization result, it is better for the entire structure to be fully saturated first, then decrease the applied field with a slower rate such that more cycles are applied to the structure and smaller minor

hysteresis loops can be formed, which eventually results in a smaller remanence.

To ease the comparison of the stiffness degradation, the secant stiffness of the

hysteresis loop K was normalized with the effective stiffness [K.sub.e] of the hysteresis envelope (Eqn (2)).

By comparison with undoped ZnO film, the Fe-doped ZnO films show

hysteresis loops, indicating the room-temperature ferromagnetism ofthin films.

Hysteresis loops of the powder samples were recorded in Lakeshore 7304 vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

If the parameters [beta] = 0.5 , n=1, [??]=1 are set, then the variation of parameter [gamma] has the effect of turning the

hysteresis loop in clockwise, increasing the area of the

hysteresis loop and curved of backbone.

The dynamic modulus is defined as the ratio of stress difference to strain difference between the minimum and maximum point on the

hysteresis loop.

This material showed a

hysteresis loop H1 type [16] indicative of open cylindrical mesopores with a narrow pore size distribution.