I. A. Richards

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Richards, I. A.

(Ivor Armstrong Richards), 1893–1979, English literary critic. Richards was one of the founders of the school of interpretation known as the New Criticism, which stressed an awareness of textual and psychological nuance and ambiguity when studying literature. He advocated this viewpoint in influential studies including The Meaning of Meaning (with C. K. Ogden, 1923), Principles of Literary Criticism (1924), and Practical Criticism (1929) (see criticismcriticism,
the interpretation and evaluation of literature and the arts. It exists in a variety of literary forms: dialogues (Plato, John Dryden), verse (Horace, Alexander Pope), letters (John Keats), essays (Matthew Arnold, W. H.
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). Richards's own poetry included Internal Colloquies: Poems and Plays (1973) and Beyond (1974) Richards was well-known for his creation, with Charles Kay Ogden, of a simplified language called Basic English, which consists of a primary vocabulary of 850 words. He championed its adoption in books such as Basic English and Its Uses (1943) and So Much Nearer: Essays Toward a World English (1968), and in his teaching at Cambridge and Harvard; he even translated Plato's Republic into Basic English.

Bibliography

See biography by J. P. I. Russo (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
McLuhan's training at Cambridge under I.A. Richards and his New Criticism disposed McLuhan the teacher to adapt methods derived from literary criticism to the study of media.
It is not surprising that she sub-titled her Cambridge Ph.D thesis, Fiction and the ReadingPublic, supervised by I.A. Richards and published by Chatto and Windus in 1932, "A Study in Social Anthropology." In a number of places in her work, Q.D.
It also includes a discussion of the work of I.A. Richards on how definitions and metaphors influence our views of the world.
Empson attended Cambridge, where he studied mathematics and English literature, the latter under I.A. Richards. From 1931 to 1934 Empson taught at the University of Tokyo, and he subsequently taught at Peking National University in China.
The Review published criticism by Ransom, William Empson, Yvor Winters, I.A. Richards, and Cleanth Brooks and poetry by Marianne Moore, Stephen Spender, Wallace Stevens, John Berryman, and Dylan Thomas.