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(International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY, One of the world's oldest and largest computer companies with revenues of USD $93 billion in 2014. IBM derives most of its revenue from software and services.

IBM product lines include mainframes (see System z), midrange models (see Power Systems) and Intel-based servers (see System x). Although IBM was a major player in personal computers, it sold its PC line in 2004 to Lenovo, China's largest computer manufacturer. In 2014, Lenovo also acquired IBM's System x line.

It all started in New York in 1911 when the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was created by a merger of The Tabulating Machine Company (Hollerith's punch card company in Washington, DC), International Time Recording Company (time clock maker in NY state), Computing Scale Company (maker of scales and food slicers in Dayton, Ohio), and Bundy Manufacturing (time clock maker in Auburn, NY). CTR started out with 1,200 employees and a capital value of $17.5 million.

In 1914, Thomas J. Watson, Sr., became general manager. During the next 10 years, he dispensed with all non-tabulating business and turned it into an international enterprise renamed IBM in 1924. Watson instilled a strict, professional demeanor in his employees that set IBMers apart from the rest of the crowd.

IBM achieved spectacular success with its punch card tabulating machines. From the 1920s through the 1960s, it developed a huge customer base that was ideal for conversion to computers, spearheaded by Watson's son, Thomas J. Watson, Jr.

IBM launched its computer business in 1953 with the 701 and introduced the 650 a year later. By the end of the 1950s, the 650 was the most widely used computer in the world with 1,800 systems installed. The 1401, announced in 1959, was its second computer winner; and by the mid-1960s, an estimated 18,000 were in use. See IBM 650 and IBM 1401.

In 1964, IBM announced the System/360, the first family of compatible computers ever developed. The 360s were enormously successful and set a standard underlying IBM mainframes to this day. See System/360.

During the 1970s and 1980s, IBM made a variety of incompatible minicomputer systems, including the System/36 and System/38. Its highly successful AS/400, introduced in 1988, provided a line of compatible machines in this segment, evolving two decades later into the Power Systems family. See System/36, System/38 and Power.

In 1981, IBM introduced the PC into a chaotic personal computer field and set the standard almost overnight. Although one of the largest PC manufacturers, IBM sold its laptop business to Lenovo in 2004 and exited the desktop PC industry. It let Lenovo, HP, Dell, Toshiba and others battle over the end-user market it created (see IBM PC and Lenovo).

In the late 1990s, IBM embraced the Linux operating system and supports it on all of its product lines. This was a major shift for a company known for proprietary software. Today, IBM mainframes continue to flourish as a huge amount of enterprise data is still processed by these machines with a lineage dating back five decades.

The Man Who Built an Empire
This photo of Thomas J. Watson, Sr., was taken in 1920, four years before he renamed the company IBM. (Image courtesy of IBM.)

IBM Office, London, 1935
"Dayton Money Making Machines" were sold all across the world. IBM became an international enterprise in the late 1930s. (Image courtesy of IBM.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The tender subject is the migration of complex SAP systems, namely the migration of a large SAP HCM -Bezgeabrechnung with the modules PI / PY, VADM the Solution Manager and SAP CE and to IBM DB2 databases that are currently on a mainframe architecture a IBM computer is operated in an x86-based, highly secure infrastructure with an in-memory database.
Facility has six classrooms, four bathrooms, one conference room, kitchen, cafeteria, teachers lounge, washroom and IBM computer learning and gaming system.
in Worcester and later became Supervisor of their IBM Computer Department.
Australia-based ANZ Group (NYSE :ANZ) has said that it is using Watson, the IBM computer that won a round of Jeopardy two years ago, in its wealth management division.
For his book, Silver interviewed Murray Campbell, one of the three IBM computer scientists who designed Deep Blue, and told him that the machine was unable to select a move and simply picked one at random, Wired magazine reported.
Executives in Bahrain from the oil sector were the first to use an EoACA earlier version of an IBM computer to assist in the hunt for black gold, it said.
Machine and the Quest to Know Everything tells of an IBM computer that battled human champions in a match on the quiz show Jeopardy.
then you probably watched in February as all-time champs Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter battled it out with an IBM computer named Watson.
Technology journalist Baker reveals the story behind Watson, the IBM computer designed specifically to compete in the television quiz show Jeopardy
Summary: An IBM computer handily beat two human competitors on the popular US quiz show Jeopardy in a three-day showdown.
What was the name of the IBM computer that famously beat Gary Kasparov at chess?
The IBM computer, a Power 575 Hydro-Cluster, is powered by the POWER6 microprocessor and is water cooled to improve energy efficiency.