The initial ice thickness and compactness are from the digitized ice chart
of the Finnish Institute of Marine Research (FIMR 2006).
An accurate freeze-up date could not be determined for the points located in the latter two regions (points 1, 3, 9, 13, 14, and 19) because in many consecutive years freeze-up had not yet occurred when the CIS published its last weekly ice chart
of the season.
Each weekly ice chart
was converted to a raster image, in which each pixel represented 1 k[m.
Each ice chart
contained a composite of ice concentration for a seven-day period.
Weekly regional ice charts
are available for the Hudson Bay region from 1971 until present.
In waters with unreliable ice charts
, that can pose big problems.
Therefore, vessel captains would need to rely on marine surveys and ice charts
Ice thickness measurements in the Baltic Sea (Lepparanta & Hakala 1992) have shown that the amount of deformed ice is significantly larger than reported in routine ice charts
and the mean ice thickness (taken over several square kilometres) could exceed consequently 2-3 m in wide areas of the Baltic Sea.
Burning Ice charts
the voyages of climate change crusaders Cape Farewell, as Tamzin Lewis writes.
The CISDA is a compilation of Canadian Ice Service regional weekly ice charts
that integrate all available real-time information about sea ice gathered from various satellite sensors, aerial reconnaissance, ship reports, operational model results, and the expertise of experienced ice forecasters.
Comparison of digitized Canadian ice charts
and passive microwave sea-ice concentrations.
The standard ice charts
are produced weekly, with an ice analyst interpreting satellite imagery with pixel sizes ranging from tens of kilometers down to a kilometer or less (Fig.