isoniazid

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isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.
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isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Equimolar quantities of INH and metal salts (cobalt chloride) were weighed accurately on analytical balance.
Neither Mogren nor INH replied to messages seeking comment.
Signs of acute intoxication, such as tachycardia, vomiting, rash, severe ataxia, speech difficulties, peripheric neuritis, vertigo, grandmal seizures, coma, emerge within 30-120 minutes after INH intake (1).
For comparison of gestational age groups related to AFP, hCG, uE3 and Inh A, which showed significant results (p-value=0.016) for hCG, (p-value=0.005) for AFP, (p-value=0.001) uE3 and (p-value = 0.133) Inh A.
DST identified 97 (57 %) isolates resistant to RIF and 129 (77%) isolates resistant to INH. LPA identified all 97 (100%) rifampicin resistant mutant and 106 (82%) INH mutant and could not detect 23 (18%) isolates that were phenotypically resistant to INH.
He had also received 4 months of INH and 2 months of ethambutol, which may not have significantly contributed to his resolution.
Interestingly, in another cohort with HAE due to C1 INH deficiency, "High anti-EBNA-1 levels were strongly correlated with the frequency of upper airway attacks and the dose requirement of C1-INH concentrate, while no significant association with the frequency of subcutaneous and abdominal attacks was found.
In all, 235 isolates were evaluated, including 192 MDR-TB, 25 RFP monoresistant, four INH monoresistant, and 14 fully susceptible isolates.