Ivan

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Ivan

A Diana-like language making up part of VHDL.

["VHDL - The Designer Environment", A. Gilman, IEEE Design & Test 3, (Apr 1986)].

Ivan

 

the name of several tsars and rulers of Bulgaria.

Ivan Asen’ II Bulgarian tsar (ruled 1218–41), son of Tsar Asen’ I.

After the death of Kaloian, Ivan Asen’ II fled to Galician and Volynian Rus’. In 1218 he overthrew Tsar Boril with the help of Russian troops. Under his rule the economic and political position of Bulgaria improved significantly. The minting of money was begun, and a commercial treaty was concluded with Dubrovnik (1230). An alliance was also made with the Hungarians. For a time he was able to establish hegemony over the Balkans. Breaking the ecclesiastical union with the papacy, he reestablished the Bulgarian partriarchate (1235) with the support of the Nicaean emperor John Vatatzes. He also laid siege to Constantinople in that year but was unsuccessful.

Ivan Alexander Bulgarian tsar (ruled 1331–71) of the Shishman dynasty.

Despot of the Lovcha region, Ivan Alexander seized power with the support of the great feudal lords. During his reign there was an increase in foreign trade (treaty concluded with Venice in 1352), and the country’s culture flourished. Ivan Alexander established peaceful relations with Walachia and Serbia. Taking advantage of Byzantium’s difficulties, he defeated its armies at Rosokastro (July 18, 1332) and seized a number of territories, including Philippopolis. In 1363 he concluded an anti-Byzantine alliance with the Turks. This period also witnessed the division of Bulgaria into the kingdoms of Vidin and Túrnovo.

Ivan Sratsimir (also I. Stratsimir). Year of birth unknown; died after 1396. Ruler of the Vidin Kingdom (1363–65, 137096). Son of Ivan Alexander.

Breaking with the kingdom of Turnovo and the Bulgarian patriarch, Ivan Sratsimir subordinated the Vidin church to the patriarch of Constantinople. After 1388 he was a vassal of the Turkish sultan.

Ivan Shishman Year of birth unknown; died June 3, 1395, in Nicopolis. Ruler, until 1393, of the kingdom of Túrnovo.

Ivan Shishman was a vassal of the Turkish sultan. His attempt to free himself from Turkish dependence after the victory of the Serbs over the Turks at Plotnik (1386) ended in failure.

REFERENCE

Irechek, K. “Bulgarskii tsar Sratsimir Vidinski.” Periodichesko spisanie na Bulgarskoto knizhovno druzhestvo, 1882, vol. 1.

S. A. NIKITIN

References in classic literature ?
"So I gave heed to my brother's words; and when I was come to Nulato, and the Russian, Ivan, laid the lash of his dog-whip upon me, I knew I must not fight.
"And I took with me meat and fish, and the lash-marks of Ivan, and I found Kamo-tah no longer groaning, but dead.
Then will we destroy them, even Ivan. When they cling like flies to the wall, and top is no less near than bottom, our men shall fall upon them from above and either side, with spears, and arrows, and guns.
Three days later, having with craft ill-concealed his hiding-place, Negore was dragged forth like a rat and brought before Ivan - "Ivan the Terrible" he was known by the men who marched at his back.
"It is the word of Ivan that thou shalt be lashed till thou diest if thou dost not speak.
Negore waited while Karduk talked with Ivan. Then Negore saw the Russian's face go dark, and he saw the men step to either side of him, snapping the lashes of their whips.
Simon went through to the armoury and routed out Ivan, the public detective's private detective.
Ivan, the confidential man with the scar and the moustaches, came out of the house like a cannon ball, and came racing across the lawn to Valentin like a dog to his master.
"Yes; look, if you like, Ivan," said Valentin, "but don't be long.
"Ivan," said the detective, "go and fetch Commandant O'Brien and Mr.
The confidential Ivan opened the door and ushered in Commandant Neil O'Brien, whom he had found at last pacing the garden again.
"Ivan," said Valentin, "please go and get the Commandant's sword from the library." Then, as the servant vanished, "Lord Galloway says he saw you leaving the garden just before he found the corpse.