immunoglobulin

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immunoglobulin:

see antibodyantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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; immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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; immunologyimmunology,
branch of medicine that studies the response of organisms to foreign substances, e.g., viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins (see immunity). Immunologists study the tissues and organs of the immune system (bone marrow, spleen, tonsils, thymus, lymphatic system),
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Immunoglobulin

Any of the glycoproteins in the blood serum that are induced in response to invasion by foreign antigens and that protect the host by eradicating pathogens. Antibodies belong to this group of proteins. An antigen is any substance capable of inducing an immune response. Intact antigens are able to specifically interact with the induced immunoglobulins. Normally, the immune system operates in a state known as self-tolerance, and does not attack the host's own tissues, but occasionally the immune system targets host-specific antigens, resulting in autoimmune disease. See Autoimmunity

Immunoglobulins are composed of two identical heavy (H) and two identical light (L) polypeptide chains. Each H and L chain has an amino-terminal variable (V) region and a carboxyl-terminal constant (C) region. Although V regions from different antibodies exhibit considerable sequence variation, there is a large degree of sequence similarity among C regions of different antibodies. In the living animal, antibodies first bind to antigen at the antigen combining site and then, ideally, eliminate it as a threat to the host.

Immunoglobulins are heterogeneous with respect to charge, size, antigenicity, and function. There are three categories of antigenic determinants present on immunoglobulins: isotypes are found in all individuals, allotypes are found in some individuals, and idiotypes are associated with the amino-terminal variable region. Isotypic determinants are located on the carboxyl-terminal constant region and are used to group immunoglobulin H and L chains into isotypes or classes. In total, there are five human H-chain classes. IgM contains mu (μ) H chains, IgG contains gamma (γ) H chains, IgA contains alpha (α) H chains, IgD contains delta (δ) H chains, and IgE contains epsilon (ε) H chains. IgG has four subclasses, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4, while IgA has two subclasses, IgA1 and IgA2. There are two L-chain isotypes named kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). Kappa and lambda chains may be associated with H chains of any isotype, and a complete description of an immunoglobulin molecule requires identification of both H and L chains.

IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin class in the serum. IgG isotypes are associated with complement fixation, opsonization (that is, rendering more susceptible to phagocytosis), fixation to macrophages, and membrane transport. Of the two IgA subclasses, IgA1 is the predominant subclass of IgA in human serum. IgA1 is the dominant subclass in all external secretions, including milk, saliva, tears, and bronchial fluids. The percentage of subclass IgA2 is higher in these fluids than in serum. IgM is the first immunoglobulin to appear during the primary immune response. IgD and IgE are present in minute amounts in normal human serum. No function has been clearly attributed to IgD. IgE is active against parasites and acts as a mediator of immediate hypersensitivity. See Anaphylaxis, Antibody, Antigen, Antigen-antibody reaction, Hypersensitivity, Immunology, Protein

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

immunoglobulin

[¦im·yə·nō′glä·byə·lən]
(immunology)
Any of a set of serum glycoproteins which have the ability to bind other molecules with a high degree of specificity. Abbreviated Ig.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Geographically, North America and Asia-Pacific constitute the two largest markets for IVIG, collectively accounted for ~75% of the market revenue in 2014.
Lazarus, "New insight into the mechanism of action of IVIg: the role of dendritic cells," Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol.
To evaluate the relationship between biomarkers and IVIG resistance, the patients were divided into two groups: IVIG responders and IVIG nonresponders.
*To provide detailed analysis of the Global Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) market structure along with forecast for the next 7 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the IVIG Market
Results of this study suggest that IVIg treatment is safe and well-tolerated in rON.
IVIG may warrant further investigation as a therapeutic tool in critical digital ischemia refractory to conventional treatment.
Oral steroids were 1st line of treatment in stable patients, while IVIG and Anti D (for rhesus positive patients) was 1st line treatment for patients with active bleed admitted through emergency.
Twenty four patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy at admission at a single dose of 2g/kg infused over 6 hours.
Nevertheless in cases resistant to these implications, we suggest that_pulse steroid and IVIG could be an alternative treatment option.
Early use of IVIG or PE but not combination was repeatedly recommended by the Guidance for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chinese GBS and foreign scholars, but recently some new ideas, to some extent, of significance on GBS treatment emerged.[4] A clinical study of the dose-response effects of secondary administration of IVIG is currently being conducted internationally in patients with poor prognosis of GBS which are evaluated according to the mEGOS model, which pointed out that conventionally a second dose of IVIG may be 2 g/kg for 2-5 days according to the clinical experience as the patients' symptom seems improved.[5] Some new drugs such as eculizumab and individualized treatment of IVIG are being used, especially for those of poor prognosis.