Iasak

Iasak

 

a tribute or tax in kind paid by non-Russian peoples who engaged in hunting in the Volga Region from the 15th to 18th centuries and in Siberia from the 17th to early 20th centuries.

Furs and sometimes cattle were brought to treasury offices as payment. People who paid the iasak were regarded as citizens. The tax was determined separately for each tribe or clan. It was a land tax among the Kungur Tatars and the Bashkirs, a poll tax among several Siberian peoples, and a tax on livestock among the Yakuts.

In the 18th century a monetary tax began replacing the iasak; the new tax was introduced in the Volga Region in the 1720’s and in Siberia in 1822. The abuses that were committed by the collectors of the iasak compelled the government to regulate the collection of the tax with the help of iasak commissions. The Sibirskii Prikaz (Siberian Prikaz) was put in charge of collecting the tax, and in 1763 the Cabinet of His Imperial Majesty assumed the responsibility. The iasak continued to be collected on a small scale until the February Revolution of 1917.

References in periodicals archive ?
They required the payment of a tax called an "Iasak," which the head of the household had to pay in fur or whatever.
(46) Rather than representing differences in political rights, the concept of inorodtsy reflected differences in the duties of these groups toward the state: often the payment of tribute (iasak) rather than tax and exemption from military service (except in the case of the Jews).
For example, in Siberia Ostiaks and Tatars who converted to Orthodoxy were to be provided a new shirt, some tribute (iasak), and select privileges from the regional governors: Gramota, 6 December 1711, PSZ, 5:133.
Rather than separating the two spheres of religious and economic life, the payment of iasak or tribute (from the Mongol-Turkic word yasa, meaning law) produced a new classification of Moscow's subjects.
In Muscovite administrative practice, the use of such Turkic words as shert' and iasak, and the codification this implied, underlined the continuation of Mongol administrative ideas.
It is particularly good on the disconnection between Evenki clan (dis)order and Russia's attempts to institutionalize iasak (tribute payments).
The small peoples of the north were largely declared tax exempt, though they were still tied to the iasak fur tribute.
This was a serious issue for the state, involving as it did taxation and individuals' "imperial rights." (11) The Russian imperial government's record on indigenous affairs rates comparatively well to that of the governments of the United States or Australia, largely because the Crown benefited enormously from the furs the natives paid as tribute (iasak).
While much of the story is familiar, Risaliti's concept of a tricontinental state and his comparisons with Spanish expansion in the New World are evocative and his image of Siberia as a colony persuasive, although his description of the iasak, or fur tribute, as "the imposition of a state feudal tribute" less so (36).
They often held ranking military positions in their garrisons, but their duties were no different from fellow Muscovite deti boiarskie and garrison Cossacks--they acted as local diplomats, escorted convoys, and collected the fur tax (iasak).