They required the payment of a tax called an "Iasak
," which the head of the household had to pay in fur or whatever.
(46) Rather than representing differences in political rights, the concept of inorodtsy reflected differences in the duties of these groups toward the state: often the payment of tribute (iasak
) rather than tax and exemption from military service (except in the case of the Jews).
For example, in Siberia Ostiaks and Tatars who converted to Orthodoxy were to be provided a new shirt, some tribute (iasak
), and select privileges from the regional governors: Gramota, 6 December 1711, PSZ, 5:133.
Rather than separating the two spheres of religious and economic life, the payment of iasak or tribute (from the Mongol-Turkic word yasa, meaning law) produced a new classification of Moscow's subjects.
In Muscovite administrative practice, the use of such Turkic words as shert' and iasak, and the codification this implied, underlined the continuation of Mongol administrative ideas.
He said Iasak
violated Eritrean press laws by using "external funds" to operate his newspaper during the war with Ethiopia.
It is particularly good on the disconnection between Evenki clan (dis)order and Russia's attempts to institutionalize iasak
The small peoples of the north were largely declared tax exempt, though they were still tied to the iasak
This was a serious issue for the state, involving as it did taxation and individuals' "imperial rights." (11) The Russian imperial government's record on indigenous affairs rates comparatively well to that of the governments of the United States or Australia, largely because the Crown benefited enormously from the furs the natives paid as tribute (iasak
While much of the story is familiar, Risaliti's concept of a tricontinental state and his comparisons with Spanish expansion in the New World are evocative and his image of Siberia as a colony persuasive, although his description of the iasak
, or fur tribute, as "the imposition of a state feudal tribute" less so (36).
They often held ranking military positions in their garrisons, but their duties were no different from fellow Muscovite deti boiarskie and garrison Cossacks--they acted as local diplomats, escorted convoys, and collected the fur tax (iasak