Iberians

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Iberians,

ancient people of Spain. Some scholars have argued that they migrated from Africa in the Neolithic period and again at the end of the Bronze Age, while the archaeological evidence has been interpreted to suggest that Iberians had an E Mediterranean origin dating to the 3d millenium B.C. They were first mentioned in the 6th cent. B.C., after they had settled in E Spain and the Ebro valley. The Iberian Peninsula, i.e., Spain and Portugal, is named for them. The high point of Iberian civilization was reached about the 4th cent. B.C., and thereafter their culture came under the influence of Carthaginian colonization. About the 4th cent. B.C. began the Celtic migration into Spain, which led to an increased dissolution of Iberian culture. After the Roman conquest of Spain the Iberians gradually accepted Roman culture. The theory that the Iberians and the Basques were identical has been discredited by modern research.

Bibliography

See A. A. Palau, The Iberians (1963); D. E. Vassberg, Land and Society in Golden Age of Castille (1984).

Iberians

 

in ancient sources, the ethnic designation of eastern Georgian tribes inhabiting the territory of Iberia. The Iberians played a major role in the consolidation and formation of a single Georgian people.


Iberians

 

the ancient tribes that originally inhabited eastern and southern Spain and later spread over a large part of the Iberian Peninsula; the ancient designation of the peninsula as Iberia is derived from their name.

The most important of the Iberian tribes were the Turdetani, Turduli, Bastetani, Carpetani, Cerretani, Indicetes, and Edetani. The question of the origin of the Iberians remains unsolved. Megalithic structures of the Neolithic are ascribed to them. Several scholars link the Iberians with the El Argar culture of the second millennium B.C. The first written information about the Iberians dates from the sixth century B.C. The southern part of Spain (present-day Andalusia and Murcia), inhabited by the Turdetani, was the most important center of Iberian culture. Here, according to classical authors, was the Tartessian state, founded before 1100 B.C. The tribal group of the Celtiberians arose as a result of the intermixing of the Iberians with the Celts, who invaded Spain between the sixth and third centuries. The Iberians felt the influence of the Phoenicians and Greeks and had their own writing. The Iberians were ruled by the Carthaginians from the fifth to the third century and by the Romans in the third and second centuries; by 19–18 B.C. the Romans had conquered all of Spain. In the second century B.C. and first century A.D. the Iberians were gradually romanized.

Iberian art took shape around the eighth century B.C. and reached its zenith in the fifth and fourth centuries. Iberian architecture is known through the remains of cities perched on hills, with walls and towers; there are also remnants of temples and tombs. Regular bricklaying appeared in Iberia around the fourth or third century. Sculpture, mainly of the fifth and fourth centuries, is represented by anthropomorphic and zoomorphic figures, mostly of limestone, and bronze votive statuettes reflecting the influence of the art of archaic Greece and the ancient East. Among Iberia’s artistic crafts were metalworking and figured ceramics.

REFERENCES

Mishulin, A. V. Antichnaia Ispaniia. Moscow, 1952.
Peters, D. “Problema etnogeneza naseleniia Iberii (drevnei Ispanii).” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1940, nos. 2–4.
Arribas, A. The Iberians. London [1964].
Bosch Gimpera, P. Etnologia de la Peninsula Iberica. Barcelona, 1932.
Bosch Gimpera, P. El poblamiento antiguo y la formatión de los pueblos de España. Mexico City, 1944.

IU. B. TSIRKIN and A. L. MONGAIT (art)

References in periodicals archive ?
NARRA TIVES ABOUT THE IBERIC EXPANSIONISM IN THE PACIFIC: A COMPARISON OF TWO VERSIONS ABOUT THE VILLALOBOS EXPEDITION (1542)
Thus, an arrow shape on Iberic, 1949, seems to indicate this way up--a helpful directive to anyone wanting to hang a circular canvas for proper viewing.
The Iberic culture encompasses any tormenting aspect of existence that Hemingway dreaded, understood, or was interested in.
Herrera's style is firmly rooted in tradition of Latin American and Iberic backgrounds blended with the refinement of jazz.
153) The list divided immigrants into forty-two races, organized by five categories: Teutonic division from Northern Europe, Celtic division from Western Europe, Iberic division from Southern Europe, Slavic division from Eastern Europe, and Mongolic division.
In: Proceedings of the XXi International Congresso of Water Activities and Swimming, VI Iberic Congress, 12-14 October 2001, Sevilha.
Add to this service as president of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, secretary general of the American College of Critical Care, council member of the Panamerican Iberic Federation for 12 years then treasurer and secretary general of the World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, and Bryan-Brown's career distinguished in every way.
Estudi de l'estructura i propietats anisotropes de la litosfera subcortical del Massis Iberic a partir de dades sismiques d'ones P i S.
Ponen cia presentada en el Congres Internacional d'Estudis Africans IV Congres d'Estudis Africans del Mon Iberic.
This, then, is another example of the "multiple device, one meaning" syndrome, definitely orthogonal to a purely compositional approach (see Squartini 1999 for a convincing interpretation of the different behavior of Italian, as compared to French and the Iberic languages, in the morphological implementation of the Future-in-the-Past).
Privately, Apollinaire emerges as the 'mal-aime' resolutely faithful to his friend despite repeated disappointments, not least Picasso's failure to produce the requested illustrations for Le Bestiaire, or his unwitting implication in the theft of Iberic sculptures from the Louvre, for which Apollinaire endured brief imprisonment to protect his friend's name.