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a people living in southeastern Nigeria between the delta of the Niger River and the Nigeria-Cameroon border; small groups also inhabit other areas of the country. They number more than 2 million persons (1970 estimate), including the closely related Anang, Oron, Andoni, Efik, Ekket, and Kwa tribes. The Ibibio language belongs to the Eastern Bantoid language group. The Ibibio worship natural forces and practice ancestor worship. Some profess Christianity. Their primary occupations are farming (yam, cassava, and sweet potato), gathering the fruit of the oil palm, and, in the coastal areas, fishing. Seasonal migratory work is available.


Ismagilova, R. N. Narody Nigerii. Moscow, 1963.



the language of the Ibibio people who inhabit south-eastern Nigeria. It belongs to the Cross River subgroup of the Congo-Kordofanian language family (according to J. Greenberg) or the Eastern Bantoid language group (according to other classifications). There are more than 2 million speakers of Ibibio (1970, estimate). The main dialects include Ibibio, Efik, and Okoiyang.

The language includes bifocal obstruents (for example, the combination [Kp]) and phonologic tones. Relationships conveyed by cases and prepositions in other languages are expressed in Ibibio by word order and by two prepositions, as well as lexically, by verbs. For example, “I will go without you” in the Efik dialect is Nyeka nyunke fi (literally, “I will go—I do not want you”). Words are formed primarily by prefixation. The verb is prefixed in order to convey the person and number of the subject. Aspectual-temporal and modal meanings are also expressed by prefixes and special personal pronouns. A literary language based on the Efik dialect has existed since the 19th century.


Goldie, H. Principles of Efik Grammar. Edinburgh, 1968.
Adams, R. English-Efik and Efik-English Dictionary, 2nd ed. Liver-pool, 1943.


References in periodicals archive ?
Pronounced traits of Animism can be found among the Ibibios, the Efiks, the Ogoja tribes, and Sierra Leone tribes in West Africa, among some tribes around the great equatorial lakes of Eastern Africa and among the Kung bushmen of Southern Africa .
Fronted by London-born Nigerian singer Eno Williams, Ibibio Sound Machine pay homage to their African roots by fusing the best of the continent's musical offering with modern western post-punk and electro.
Peters EE (2012) Ikot Ebom Itam pottery in Ibibio art and technology: the past and present.
Connell's (2002) study of four African tone languages: Ibibio, Kunama, Mambila and Dschang reveals the existence of IF0 for Ibibio, Kunama, and Dschang.
They were made by an unknown Ibibio artist in what is now southeastern Nigeria.
Asimismo, existen 250 grupos etnicos, entre los que destacan: Hausa y Fulani (29% de la poblacion), Yoruba (21%), Igbo (18%), Ijaw (10%), Kanuri (4%), Ibibio (3.
Artists and bands performing at the Sage Gateshead across four stages on Saturday, February 21 from 6pm are: Hot Chip; Royal Blood, who will arrive on Tyneside days before they find out if they've won a Brit Award, The Fall, Jungle, local lads Maximo Park, Mercury Prize 2014 nominee Kate Tempest, Gruff Rhys, Simian Mobile Disco, Django Django, Father |John Misty, Ghostpoet, The Cribs, Villagers, Ibibio Sound Machine and Eliza Carthy, who will join Kate Tempest for an exclusive 6 Music collaboration.
Artists and bands performing at |the Sage Gateshead on Saturday, February 21, from 6pm are: Hot Chip, Royal Blood, The Fall, Kate Tempest and MaxImo Park (Hall One); and The Cribs, Django Django, Ibibio Sound Machine, Father John Misty and Ghostpoet (Hall Two).
The Cross River Igbo, for instance, Forde and Jones note, are assumed to have adopted their double descent system from their Ibibio neighbours, while the western Igbo are believed to have adopted the strong kingship/chiefdom system from their Benin (in Edo State) neighbours.
Categories were Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba, Fulani, Tiv, Kanuri, Ibibio, Ijaw and Other.
This appeared to be the first documented records where Igbo and some other languages in Southern Nigeria like Efik, Kalabari, Ibibio, etc were made.
For instance, among the Ibibio, God is called Abasi Ibom; among the Igbo, God is called Chukwu or Chineke; among the Yoruba, God is called Olodumare or Olorun.