Radio echo sounding on four ice caps
in Arctic Canada.
"Our oceans are expanding as they absorb more and more energy and the warmer sea is what is accelerating the melting of the ice caps
from below, which in turn is accelerating global sea level rise."
Consider the evidence: * The edge of the Qori Kalis glacier that flows off the Quelccaya ice cap
high in the Peruvian Andes Mountains was retreating at a rate of 13 feet annually between 1963 and 1978.
"These peripheral glaciers and ice caps
can be thought of as colonies of ice that are in rapid decline, many of which will likely disappear in the near future," study co-author Ian Howat, a glaciologist at Ohio State University, said in a (https://news.osu.edu/news/2017/03/31/greencoast/) statement .
It also showed that the contribution to sea-level rise from the glaciers of Greenland separated from the ice sheet makes up around 10 percent of the estimated contribution of the entire world's glaciers and ice caps
, and that contribution is higher than expected.
As the ice sheet grew from the merging of the upland ice caps
, it became so thick that it reversed its flow back up the valleys, re-adjusting the landforms it had created during earlier stages of growth.
According to Dr Roy Armstrong these species could be at risk of dying out as the shrinking polar ice caps
lead to lower rainfall levels and increased risk of drought in countries like Gambia and Chad.
The previously unknown species, which he and his colleagues named Carnobacterium pleistocenum, is a good model for life-forms that he and other researchers suspect could exist in a similar suspended state in Mars' polar ice caps
or in the ice crust on Europa, he adds.
The two scientists watch in horror as a sudden deluge of fresh water, caused by the disintegrating ice caps
, starts a chain reaction of earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tidal waves and tornadoes.
If a fifth of the Canadian ice caps
have melted by the end of this century, this leads to an additional sea rise of 3.5cm.
Bangor University Oceanographer Dr Tom Rippeth, who has a team doing research in Arctic, says the polar ice cap
has shrunk by almost a third compared with its size this time last year.