SPOTLIGHT: An ice nucleus
generator operated by the Desert Research Institute on land owned by Denver Water, north of the Winter Park Resort.
Bingemer, 2008: The fast ice nucleus
For a droplet of supercooled water to change to ice, it must "learn" to rearrange its molecules into a crystalline structure using a seed particle called an ice nucleus
. This serves as a catalyst for the water to crystallize.
Crystallographic arrangement: The geometric arrangement of hydrogen bonding molecules on the surface of the ice nucleus must be very similar to that of water molecules in an ice crystal lattice.
Therefore, active site densities can be correlated to the ability of an aerosol to function as an ice nucleus. In other words, ice nuclei with more active sites exhibit greater ice nucleation efficiencies.
Chernoff & Bertram (2010) found that it is a fairly efficient ice nucleus as it exhibited onset ice supersaturations between 110% and 120%.
Because of this, more quantitative studies are required in order to better understand the mechanism by which pollen functions as an ice nucleus in the four different modes.
Bacteria in the leaf ecosystem with emphasis on Pseudomonas syringae, ice nucleus and epiphyte.
Erwinia herbicola: A bacterial ice nucleus active in increasing frost injury to corn.
The crystal growth radiates outward from this center, which is known as an ice nucleus
. The dust particle's likely composition is thought to be a form of clay called kaolinite.
The same aerosol suite (aerosol size distribution, aerosol mass, aerosol composition, CCN) and precipitation sampling systems used in previous CalWater 1 efforts were used in the early start campaign Additionally, aerosol filter collections were made for biological and ice nucleating particle analyses extending across the entire mixed-phase cloud temperature regime, and the first field linkage of the CFDC with an ATOFMS to measure the compositions of aerodynamically separated ice crystals [activated ice nucleus
(IN)] from the CFDC [using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI)].
In the case of PL, snowflakes that don't melt quite all the way are liquid drops with a potentially active ice nucleus