On board the spacecraft will be several instruments, including an ice-penetrating radar
which will determine the thickness of the moon's icy shell.
The cavity was revealed by ice-penetrating radar
in NASA's Operation IceBridge, an airborne campaign beginning in 2010 that studies connections between the polar regions and the global climate.
For three days in May 2016, his team flew over the crater in a German aeroplane with ice-penetrating radar
, drawing imaginary grid lines across the surface.
They analysed the shape of the land beneath, using measurements from ice-penetrating radar
, and compared the findings with satellite, database records, and geological information from aerial surveys.
The plan is to use ice-penetrating radar
to probe the shell (SN Online: 5/26/15), but that might not work on ultrathick ice, Campbell said.
Using a number of instruments, including ice-penetrating radar
and high-resolution cameras, the observations would provide untold details about Europa's surface composition and characteristics.
technology inserted aboard Nasa survey flights has discovered frozen forms of ice blocks at the very bottom of the Greenland ice sheet which are as tall as city skyscrapers and as wide as the island of Manhattan.
Researchers used data from IceBridge's ice-penetrating radar
- the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder, or MCoRDS, which is operated by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan.
Discovered with ice-penetrating radar
data taken from NASA's Operation Icebridge polar ice-monitoring mission, the "paleofluvial megacanyon" apparently predates the inception of the ice sheet.
Scientists from the University of Aberdeen and the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) used ice-penetrating radar
to build up a picture of the underlying bedrock in the vicinity of one of the ice sheet's many glaciers, the Ferrigno Ice Stream.
Given advances in sensor technologies, the Office of Aviation Forces worked with the Naval Research Laboratory, VXS-1, and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory to obtain sensor and ice-penetrating radar
sweeps of the suspected area.