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(ēchē`käwä), city (1990 pop. 436,957), Chiba prefecture, central Honshu, Japan, on the Edo River. It is an industrial city with metallurgical, chemical, textile, and foodstuff industries.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in Japan, on Honshu, in Chiba Prefecture; suburb of Tokyo. Population, 261,000 (1970). Major industries include the building of transport machinery and airplanes, metallurgy, wool textiles, and food processing.



one of the oldest actors’ dynasties in the Japanese kabuki theater. In Japan an actor’s dramatic name traditionally is passed on to his son or adopted pupil. In the 1940’s and 1950’s, the best-known members of the Ichikawa dynasty were Danjuro XI, Ennosuke II, Sadanji III, Dansiro III, and Yaozo IX. In the 1960’s and early 1970’s, the Ichikawa dynasty included Ebizo X, Monnosuke VII, and Ennosuke III.

Danjuro Ichikawa is one of the branches of the Ichikawa dynasty of actors. It numbers 11 generations. One of its most outstanding members was Danjuro I (born May 1660; died Feb. 19, 1704). In 1673 he created a new stage makeup, which subsequently became the traditional makeup for the aragoto roles (war heroes). Another notable representative was Danjuro Ichikawa XI (born Jan. 6, 1909; died Nov. 10, 1965). He was among the most popular contemporary actors of the kabuki theater. He usually portrayed romantic, heroic masculine characters (ta-chiyaku roles).

Another branch of the dynasty, the Sadanji Ichikawa, numbers three generations. The most outstanding member of this branch was Sadanji Ichikawa II (born Oct. 19, 1880; died Feb. 23, 1940). He contributed to the development of the modern drama, the shingeki, in Japanese theater. One of the most progressive actors of his time, Sadanji II sought to revitalize the art of the kabuki. In 1928 he headed a company which performed in Moscow.

Ennosuke Ichikawa is a third branch of the Ichikawa dynasty. The most prominent representative of this branch was Ennosuke Ichikawa II (born May 10, 1888; died June 12, 1963). In 1919 he went abroad to become acquainted with the dramatic arts of Western Europe and North America. In 1944 he became the head of the four most important kabuki theatrical companies. From 1955 to 1963, Ennosuke II was a member of the Academy of Arts of Japan. In 1961 he and his company toured the USSR.


Kabuki. Moscow, 1965. [Translated from English. Introductory article and notes by L. D. Grisheleva.]
Gundzi, M. Iaponskii teatr kabuki. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.