Ypres

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Ypres

(ē`prə), Du. Ieper, commune (1991 pop. 35,235), West Flanders prov., SW Belgium, near the French border. It is an agricultural market and an industrial center. Manufactures include textiles, textile-making machinery, and processed food. During the Middle Ages, Ypres was one of the most powerful towns of Flanders, with a flourishing cloth industry that rivaled those of GhentGhent
, Du. Gent, Fr. Gand, city (1991 pop. 230,246), capital of East Flanders prov., W Belgium, at the confluence of the Scheldt and Leie rivers. Connected with the North Sea by the Ghent-Terneuzen Canal and by a network of other canals, Ghent is a major port and
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 and BrugesBruges
or Brugge
, city (1991 pop. 117,063), capital of West Flanders prov., NW Belgium, connected by canal with Zeebrugge (on the North Sea), its outer port. It is a rail junction as well as a commercial, industrial, and tourist center.
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. However, political and social unrest and foreign wars led to the decline of this industry. A center of resistance to Spanish rule, the town was taken (1584) and sacked by Alessandro FarneseFarnese, Alessandro
, 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he
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. It was held by France from 1678 to 1716 and from 1792 to 1814. In World War I, Ypres was the scene of three great battles (see Ypres, battles ofYpres, battles of,
three major engagements of World War I fought in and around the town of Ypres in SW Belgium. The first battle of Ypres (Oct.–Nov., 1914) was the last of the series of engagements referred to as "the race for the sea.
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). The town was completely destroyed during the war and was later rebuilt. Among the city's restored buildings are the Gothic Cathedral of St. Martin and the magnificent cloth-workers hall (both originally built in the 13th cent.). On the ramparts of the fortifications built (late 17th cent.) by Vauban is a British memorial gate designed by Reginald Blomfield. Outside the town's walls are some 40 military cemeteries.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ypres

 

(Flemish, leper), a city in northwestern Belgium, in the province of West Flanders. Population, 18,500 (1967). It is the site of textile and food industries. Machines used in the production of textiles are also manufactured. The city was first mentioned in chronicles in 1109. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, Ypres competed with Bruges and Ghent as the center of the production of cloth by guilds. Later the city went into a decline. Architectural landmarks in Ypres include the Cathedral of St. Martin (13th-15th centuries) and Cloth Hall (1200–1304), a masterpiece of secular Gothic architecture. Other monuments of medieval Lowlands architecture have also been preserved.

During World War I (1914–18) in the vicinity of Ypres, the German Fourth Army launched a counterattack against the Ypres salient (April 1915) and forestalled an offensive being prepared by the Anglo-French forces. The Germans occupied most of the salient. On April 22, the first day of fighting, the Germans used a weapon of chemical warfare (chlorine gas) and inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. This was the first use of chemical warfare in the history of war. In 1917, from July 7 to November 6, the English Fifth and Second armies and the French First Army repeatedly launched offensives. Achieving minor successes, they suffered enormous losses. On July 12, 1917, the Germans used mustard gas, which is also known as yperite, for the first time.

REFERENCE

Deyne, V. de. Ypres …. Liège, 1925.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Ypres

a town in W Belgium, in W Flanders province near the border with France: scene of many sieges and battles, esp in World War I, when it was completely destroyed. Pop.: 35 021 (2004 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Roedd yn galonogol gweld cymaint o fobl yn talu teyrnged i'r rhai a gollwyd yn ystod y rhyfel allan yn y wlad yn hytrach na'r prif seremoniau yn nhref Ieper ei hun.
Ieper, one of the stops on my voyage across the province of Flanders in Belgium, was the venue for one of the most intense wars known to mankind -- World War I.
(I.P.S.) in Ieper, Belgium, has alloyed green PET and PE for about six months.
His visits to Berlin, Crete and Ieper commemorate Australian soldiers who died in Europe during the World Wars.The eight Commissioners he will meet are Trade Commissioner Pascal Lamy, Agriculture Commissioner Franz Fischler, Internal Market Commissioner Frits Bolkestein, External Relations Commissioner Chris Patten, Health Commissioner David Byrne, Economic and Monetary Affairs Commissioner Pedro Solbes, Development and Humanitarian Aid Commissioner Poul Nielson, and Justice and Home Affairs Commissioner Antonio Vitorino.
It covers an area of 1,075 ha (2,655 ac) and feeds a drinking-water reservoir for the city of Ieper. The highest elevation is 151 m (495 ft), which drops to 23 m (75 ft) at the reservoir inlet.
Flanders Language Valley, situated in Ieper (Belgium), is the brainchild of Jo Lernout and Pol Hauspie and is aiming to become an area of expertise, much like Silicon-Valley.
Around the ugly town of Ieper - Ypres, as it was known when hundreds of thousands were killed here during the Great War - I drove from cemetery to cemetery, and the soft countryside disappeared entirely into low, insignificant hills or dead flatness.
The simple ceremony is held each month at the memorial to the Welsh soldiers killed and injured in the area during the Great War at Boezinghe near Ieper (Ypres).
Meanwhile, the annual Day of Remembrance for all Victims of Chemical Warfare was observed at a ceremony today in the Ieper Room of OPCW's Headquarters.
All members of personnel and their partners were invited at the company site in the Belgian city of Ieper, which was transformed into a festival field for the occasion.
Last night, Mr Jones attended the nightly remembrance ceremony at the Menin Gate Memorial in Ypres (Ieper).