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immunoglobulin entries
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

information governance

An umbrella term for a formal and systematic approach to maintaining a high quality of data and information within an organization. Information governance includes data validation and cleansing as well as authorization, privacy and security issues.

Governance vs. Management
The terms information "governance" and information "management" are used synonymously. However, governance implies paying strict attention to legal and industry regulations, whereas management deals more with the information life cycle. See ILM, privacy, data hygiene and data administration.


(INSTAnt camera teleGRAM) A very popular photo and video social networking service for mobile devices founded in 2010. Initially for iOS, Android and website versions were added in 2012.

Pictures taken with the Instagram app can be sent to Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, foursquare or Flickr, as well as to the user's account on the Instagram website. In 2012, Instagram became famous overnight when Facebook announced its acquisition of the year-and-a-half old company for $1 billion.

Stories and Live Video
In 2016, Stories was added that lets users post photos and short videos that last for 24 hours. A slide show can be created by adding images and videos. Also in 2016, Live Video lets Instagram users share videos in real time. See Boomerang and Hyperlapse.

Follow Your Favorite Instagrammer
Individuals, entertainers and commercial enterprises post images about their area of interest, invite comments and enable people to "follow" them similar to Twitter.

Enhance Before Sending
Instagram includes a raft of image filters users can choose before sending off their photos. With a couple of taps on the iPhone app, this original photo (top) was greatly enhanced. See image filter.

integrated graphics

Placing the computer's display circuitry in the chipset on the motherboard or on the same chip as the CPU. Integrated graphics is technically an "integrated graphics controller," which shares memory with the CPU (see shared video memory). It provides the most economical alternative to either a stand-alone "graphics processing unit" (GPU) or an "integrated graphics processor" (IGP), where the GPU resides in the chipset. See GPU and IGP.

Upgrade from Integrated to Discrete
Integrated graphics is adequate for the non-gamer, and an integrated graphics processor (IGP) is increasingly sufficient for many gamers. However, "discrete graphics" using a stand-alone GPU is especially desired by gamers who want the most realistic visualization.

Desktop computers can be upgraded from integrated to discrete by plugging a graphics card into an empty PCI Express or PCI slot on the motherboard. The built-in graphics is then disabled by changing a setting in the BIOS or by changing a jumper on the motherboard. See GPU, display adapter and integrated GPU.

Graphics Hardware Locations
In a PC, graphics rendering originally took place in the CPU only. Over time, functions were offloaded to separate circuits and then to GPUs either in separate cards, the chipset or the CPU chip itself.
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