Igbo


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Igbo

(ĭg`bō) or

Ibo

(ē`bō), one of the largest ethnic groups in Nigeria, deriving mainly from SE Nigeria, numbering around 15 million. Originally settled in many autonomous villages, the Igbo nevertheless had a sense of cultural unity and the ability to unite for political action. They were receptive to Christianity and education under British colonialism and missionary influence. The Igbo became heavily represented in professional, managerial, technical, and commercial occupations, and many migrated to other regions of Nigeria. They played a major role in securing Nigerian independence from Britain in 1960. During the political conflict in 1966, thousands of Igbo immigrants were killed in the northern region, home of the Muslim Hausa and Fulani. Many Igbo fled to their eastern homeland, which seceded from Nigeria in 1967, calling itself the Republic of Biafra. Civil war followed, and, by 1970, Biafra was defeated.

Bibliography

See G. Basden, Among the Igbos of Nigeria (1921, repr. 1966); A. C. Smock, Igbo Politics (1971); S. Ottenberg, Boyhood Rituals in an African Society (1988).

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Igbo

(dreams)

The universe of the Igbo, a southeastern Nigerian people, is conceptualized into three broad categories through certain metaphors and myths: Elu lgwe, the sky, which is inhabited by the supreme deity Chiukwu; Ala Mmuo, the land where reside numerous spirit beings which are either back from their sojourn on the earth or awaiting their turn to begin a new travel in the world of living men—and where are also found the revered ancestors, and Ala Mmadu, land of the living, where spirits are invisible to man.

Considerable and continuous contact exists between humans and spirits. Chiukwu keeps in touch with humans and their affairs through the chi, the spiritual entity embodied in a person’s identity from before birth, which journeys with him or her through life. In Igbo thought each person’s life is predestined through the agency of the chi, although this destiny can be modified by the ikenga, the personification of each individual’s right hand, representing the power to achieve.

A study by Robert LeVine published in 1966 examined achievement motivation among the Igbo. LeVine analyzed private dreams of personal success as a means of identifying underlying cultural values of achievement motivation. In addition to being a consequence of achievement motivation, dreams, omens, and prophecy are seen in Igbo society as the principal demonstration of extra-human powers in the candidacy for religious office. When the Igbo determine succession to religious office, dreams and the use of dream narratives are sometimes thought to be a manifestation both of the agency of the spiritual entity behind the office and of the candidate’s chi.

Dreams are perceived as a means for divine messages, and the role of divination in the succession process is regarded as a means of both interpreting and validating the message of a dream. Usually, the messenger who appears in the dream is either the previous tenant of the office or a manifestation of the spirit to the service of whom the office is devoted. In some cases, the first type of messenger appears in an initial dream, and in a following dream the message is strengthened by the appearance of the other type. The chief mode of communication is always through the physical placement, by the messenger, of the symbols of office in the hands of the dreamer, and in many cases this act is reinforced by a voice telling the dreamer that he has been chosen for office.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

Ibo

, Igbo
1. a member of a Negroid people of W Africa, living chiefly in S Nigeria
2. the language of this people, belonging to the Kwa branch of the Niger-Congo family: one of the chief literary and cultural languages of S Nigeria
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Unfortunately, the shenanigan did not pay off on the home front, though the Igbos in the diaspora fall prey.
Femi Fani-Kayode has said the various prayer sessions being conducted by former Military Head of State, General Yakubu Gowon will remain a waste if he does not apologise to the Igbos over the genocide against the group during the Civil War.
"Igbo Day will also feature a variety of cultural displays," said Eze.
Unlike other African kings who embraced the new dispensation, indirectly running their polities on behalf of the British, the Nri family largely disappeared from political/ spiritual life, leaving Igbo destiny to a new class of mission-educated politicians and generals.
What became clear from my mother and my credentials was that my father preferred Michael to all my other names--Michael always came first in all, while Ndubuisi came second like a ceremonial tag to remind whoever queries him that I am an Igbo boy.
The Igbo society provides an essential historical theater of studying sexuality in Africa.
There were other stories, too, of how British academics at the University of Zaria encouraged the massacres and sent students out to incite the youths, how crowds at the Lagos motor parks had booed and taunted, 'Go, Igbo, go, so that garri will be cheaper!
Igbo Society is basically a patriarchal society where men generally happen to be the victim of certain complexes, such as to have a sense of superiority over women resulting in sufferings of the females for being at a weaker position in the apparent men dominated society.
In a study of ethnic-based organisations in the northern city of Kano, Nigeria, Eghosa Osaghae, a political scientist, in his work, Trends in Migrant Political Organizations in Nigeria: The Igbo in Kano (1994), argues that both the Igbo and the Yoruba in northern city of Kano, Nigeria, developed "supra-ethnic associations," with institutionalisation of kingship known as eze Ndi-Igbo ("king" of the Igbo people) and Oba among the Igbo and Yoruba peoples respectively, which, according to him, is meant to create "home away from home" and provide an avenue for the children born outside their parents' ethnic homeland to be acculturated into the culture of their parents.
In section 4, we shall discuss v-movement as it relates to the functional head NEG in Igbo. But before then, let us look at the negative marking strategies and the morphemes marking negation in Igbo.
[check] and as a subject or course of study in schools and tertiary institutions--Department of Igbo or Igbo studies.
Predominantly farmers and business people, and urban dwellers, an estimated 30 million Igbo people live in Nigeria.