(100) See Kamali, supra note 63, at 172 (explaining that the consensus on a point of law itself becomes authoritative, while the legal rationale used by each jurist in arriving at the consensus by reference to the primary sources is obscured in reporting the law); supra note 58 and accompanying text (explaining the definintion of ijma
Even when differences lead to discord, Islam relies on the process of ijma
(consensus) to cope with discord.
' is defined in traditional Islamic thought as the consensus or convergence of opinion of leading authorities in a certain field, and is seen as the third authoritative basis -- after the Quran and the Sunna (practice of the Prophet) -- of legislation and religious doctrine.
The basis of Ibn Fudi's theological judgement on the concept of al-wala' can be found in the Qur'anic verses 9:71, 49:10 and 8:1, the hadiths, and the ijma
of the Sunni scholars he cited and, most importantly, by the explanation of al-Nafrawi in his "Fawakih," where he defines al-wala' as showing love and sincere affection for Muslims, and avoiding whatever can create aversion such as rancor and envy.
One of the major creeds in this concept is its rejection of ijma
' (scholarly consensus) and qiyas (analogy) and also its rejection of the sources and methodological foundations of ijtihad (deriving qualified judgment) and taqlid (following qualified judgment).
 Ahmad, M.NASRI medical image segmentation by marker controlled watershed and mathematical morphology The International Journal of Multimedia and Its Applications (IJMA
) Vol.4, no.
For Ijtehad to assume the form of Ijma
" legislation is to be made on the basis of majority votes.
In this framework, the Islamic values like those proposed by Toor (2007) are formed integratively through: (a) understanding the Qur'an, the Sunnah, Ijma
' and Ijtihad; (b) upholding the five pillars of Islam, namely attesting to Islamic faith, performing the five daily prayers, giving alms, fasting during the month of Ramadhan and performing pilgrimage to Mecca; (c) believing in the Six Pillars of Islamic Faith (Allah, the Angels, the Revealed Scriptures, the Messengers, the Hereafter, and the Divine Decrees).
The teachings from Islam--derived primarily from the revealed knowledge in the Qur'an (the highest religious and most absolute source), the Hadiths (the Prophet's Sayings), the Sunnah (the Prophet's Actions) and Ijma
'[v]  as well as the Ijtihad of existing jurists [vi] --is considered a comprehensive way of life whose teachings cover, directly or indirectly, every possible human relationship including that with the environment [29,5].
(12) Some of the people working--wittingly or unwittingly--in this structural subversion of mu'amala to Mammon are even claiming (or arguing for) global juristic consensus (ijma
') on Islamic financial standards set by one of the (so-called) standards-setting bodies of the IBF industry.
and confidence of the companions accorded the Uthmanic text.