Writing toward the end of Il-Khan rule, the secretary Muhammad b.
Far from the Il-Khan court (ordu) in Arran, the feud was a means of expressing and regulating political hierarchies, which shaped the strategic landscape of the Il-Khanate's eastern border.
Bektut responded to these charges by reassuring the Il-Khan, Abu Sacid (r.
(21) Similarly, in 1335, when the princess Kinjak Khatun saw her son being publicly executed by the Il-Khan Abu Sacid as punishment for his father's treason, she participated in the subsequent battle alongside her husband to avenge her son.
Thus we find letters from the Mongol leaders Hulegu Il-Khan
and Ghazan Il-Khan
of Persia (Letters 72, 81).
Leonard Lewisohn's work in the Il-Khanate period focuses once again on the poetry and other literature of the Sufis; but he also looks at the patronage of Sufism by the Il-Khan's court.
Nowruz, the Il-Khan general, used the Sufis Shihab al-Din 'Isma'il and Qotb al-Din to mediate the release of a prisoner.
All of the Sufi orders within Central Asia and Persia--such as the Kubraviya, Nurbakshiya, Naqshbandiya, and Ni'matu'llahiya--grew, probably due to economic advantages given to mosques and khangahs (houses or hospices where Sufis lived and gathered) built during the reign of the Il-Khans, the period during which many of the orders came into existence.
Whereas conversion from shamanism to another religion appears to have been conducted via a duel between shaman and other contender, in the cosmopolitan court of the Il-Khans, religion was decided through oratory.
Sent to Persia in 1283 by Qubilai Qa'an in an embassy to the Il-khan, he remained there until his death thirty years later.
181-83) - the new-found autonomy and self-assertiveness of the Il-khans, and the urge of bureaucrats working in the time-honored Iranian tradition both to depict Mongol rule as foretold by the Iranian epic history and to bolster their own position in the face of attacks by the Turco-Mongol aristocracy - are especially persuasive.
From time to time these rulers were obliged to be the vassals of militarily superior powers such as the Samanids, the Seljuqs, and the Mongol Il-khans
, but they reasserted their independence as circumstances permitted.