Nowruz, the Il-Khan general, used the Sufis Shihab al-Din 'Isma'il and Qotb al-Din to mediate the release of a prisoner.
All of the Sufi orders within Central Asia and Persia--such as the Kubraviya, Nurbakshiya, Naqshbandiya, and Ni'matu'llahiya--grew, probably due to economic advantages given to mosques and khangahs (houses or hospices where Sufis lived and gathered) built during the reign of the Il-Khans, the period during which many of the orders came into existence.
Whereas conversion from shamanism to another religion appears to have been conducted via a duel between shaman and other contender, in the cosmopolitan court of the Il-Khans, religion was decided through oratory.
His relations with successive wazirs - he presided over Rashid al-Din's downfall - and with the Il-khan himself show how susceptible Chupan was to the intrigues of his subordinates.
181-83) - the new-found autonomy and self-assertiveness of the Il-khans, and the urge of bureaucrats working in the time-honored Iranian tradition both to depict Mongol rule as foretold by the Iranian epic history and to bolster their own position in the face of attacks by the Turco-Mongol aristocracy - are especially persuasive.
From time to time these rulers were obliged to be the vassals of militarily superior powers such as the Samanids, the Seljuqs, and the Mongol Il-khans
, but they reasserted their independence as circumstances permitted.