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see HomerHomer,
principal figure of ancient Greek literature; the first European poet. Works, Life, and Legends

Two epic poems are attributed to Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey.
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an ancient Greek epic poem about Ilium (Troy), attributed to Homer.

Contemporary scholarship on ancient Greece and Rome maintains that the Iliad, based on legends from the Cretan and Mycenaean era, originated in the Greek Ionian cities of Asia Minor sometime during the ninth or the eighth century B.C. The poem consists of approximately 15,700 hexameter verses. During the fourth or third century B.C. it was divided into 24 books by the classical philologist Zenodotus of Ephesus.

The Iliad tells of the heroic siege of Troy by an Achaean army, composed of many tribes and headed by the Mycenaean leader Agamemnon. Among the epic’s principal heroes are Achilles, Menelaus, and Hector.

In the undifferentiated state of its epic consciousness, the Iliad represents the world as an integral, commensurate, and qualitatively uniform entity. Therefore, in antiquity the Iliad was considered to be of unsurpassed artistic and historical value as a compendium of knowledge and as a source of philosophy and poetry. Much of the poem’s historical and geographical information has been verified by the archaeological excavations begun by H. Schliemann.

The Iliad has been translated into Russian several times since the end of the 18th century. N. I. Gnedich was the first to translate it using the original meter (1829).


Homeri carmina, vol. 1: Homeri Ilias. Edited by A. Ludwich. Leipzig, 1902–07.
The Iliad, 2nd ed. Edited by W. Leaf. London, 1900–02.
Homeri opera, 2nd ed., vols. 1–2. Edited by D. B. Monro and T. W. Allen. Oxford, 1908.
Homerus Iliade, vols. 1–4. Edited by P. Mazon. Paris, 1937–38.
In Russian translation:
Iliada. Translated by N. I. Gnedich. Moscow, 1960.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. Ob iskusstve, vol. 1. Moscow, 1967.
Tronskii, I. M. “Problemy gomerovskogo eposa.” In Gomer: Iliada. Translated by N. I. Gnedich. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Sakharnyi, N. L. Iliada…. Arkhangel’sk, 1957.
Losev, A. F. Gomer. Moscow, 1960.
Markish, S. Gomer i ego poemy. Moscow, 1962.
Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, U. Die Ilias und Homer, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1920.
Schadewaldt, W. Von Homers Welt und Werk, 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1951.
Bowra, C. M. Heroic Poetry. London, 1952.


Homer’s epic detailing a few days near the end of the Trojan War. [Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
See: Epic


Homer’s poetic account set during the legendary Trojan war. [Gk. Poetry: The Iliad]
See: War


(language, real-time)
A real-time language.

["On the Design of a Language for Programming Real-Time Concurrent Processes", H.A. Schutz, IEEE Trans Soft Eng SE-5(3):248-255, May 1979].
References in periodicals archive ?
He considers the development of themes in the poem in terms of its three political communities--the Achaeans, the Trojans, and the Olympian gods--the ways the consensus motif illustrates real-world reception, and evidence indicating that some ancient readers saw the treatment of consensus as an expression of the nexus between the Iliadic tradition and its community of reception, ending with comparisons to the Odyssey.
In Part I, I argue that Helen plays a doubled role in this Iliadic discourse of value: as an object of desire, Helen embodies an ideology of superlativity that seeks to justify the loss of many lives for a single woman; at the same time, as a desiring subject, she raises sinister doubts about this ideology of superlativity.
4) As though the visual synopsis were not enough, an inscribed pilaster adds its own textual epitome, summarising events from the seventh to 24th Iliadic books (the 108 lines are crammed into a space measuring around 17 cm in height).
The comparison to the menacing lion invokes both his Iliadic past and the savage territories from which he has just escaped, but only to summon a whiff of former and possible identities that won't help him in his present plight.
63) and to this end has included equivalents for the Iliadic formulae used (for instance anax andron Agamemnon becomes inkosi of men, Agamemnon), although formulae are not replicated at every occurrence.
In my opinion, this speech can be interpreted as an adaptation of the famous Iliadic teichoscopy, during which Helen shows Priam and the old men of Troy the Greek leaders on the battlefield in front of the city walls (Iliad I, III, vv.
The most striking difference between the Iliadic and non-Iliadic aegis is the metallic fabric.
A recent interview on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart not only reminded us of the Iliad, however; our subsequent discussions of it led us to reconsider some Iliadic similes that we had interpreted in our earlier publications.
Unlike the typical iliadic hero--"swift-footed" Achilles or "huge" Ajax--Odysseus's most important characteristic is mental, not physical, which partially explains the antipathy to Odysseus on the part of both Achilles and Ajax.
Since only one other Iliadic character is individuated by appearance,(15) and few ever described physically, the elaborate delineation of an apparently minor, fleeting figure is striking.
Thus, we learn about the fail of Troy, second hand, from the stories told by Menelaus and Helen to Telemachus, Odysseus' son, and third-hand from the songs of the blind bard Demodocus (Homer' s self-portrait of his younger Iliadic self, perhaps) to the Phaeacian court; we learn about the deaths of Achilles and Agamemnon through their own narrations, when Odysseus meets them during his visit to the underworld.