Ala' al-Dawla al-Simnani Between Spiritual Authority and Political Power: A Persian Lord and Intellectual in the Heart of the Ilkhanate
After the Mongol invasion, the city became a part of the Mongol Ilkhanate
In the early 1320s, the Golden Horde and Persian Ilkhanate
were at war, but Mamluk relations with Persia had considerably improved (a peace treaty was signed in 1323), and al-Nasir refused to aid Uzbak Khan in the conflict.
From 1335 the dissolution of the Ilkhanate
, centred on Persia, produced decades of warfare and conflict that not only resulted in more than a dozen new territories but threw armies and people across the western end of the old Mongol Empire at the very time that the plague stepped again into Europe.
The history was written by Rashid al–Din, Grand Vizier of the Mongol Ilkhanate
era, Isfahan was not developed so much and there was not seen any significant activity about urbanization.
During his final voyage back home, Marco Polo was accompanying, on behalf of Kubla Khan, a bride for the Mongol Ilkhanate
Sultan Argun, then ruling the Islamic heartlands.
In chapters 4 and 5, "The Chinggisid Legacy in the Muslim World" and "From the Accursed to the Revered Father and Back: Changing Images of Chinggis Khan in the Muslim World," Biran explains how initially Chinggis Khan and the Mongols were described as instruments of God's punishment, which was confirmed in Islamic writers by the Mongols of the Ilkhanate
and Ulus of Jochi converting to Islam.
1260-75) wrote a unique account of Mongol life, having been sent on an embassy to the Ilkhanate
by Tommaso Agni di Lentino, Bishop of Bethlehem.
Sufis and shamans: Some remarks on the Islamization of the Mongols in the Ilkhanate
Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 42 (1):27-46.
I intend to analyze this text to see what it says about Muslim perceptions of Chinggis Khan (from about a century after his death), as well as attempts to give expression to religious change perhaps among the Mongols of the Ilkhanate
(the Mongol state in Iran and the surrounding countries) itself.
Court intrigues in the Mongol Ilkhanate
government eventually led to the execution of the author's brother in 1284, but Juvaini himself escaped by dying of natural causes in March of the previous year.