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under Soviet criminal law, hunting without a proper permit in prohibited places, at prohibited times, or using prohibited implements and methods. Illegal hunting is a form of poaching, an offense that also includes illegally catching fish or taking other commercially valuable marine and river products and illegally hunting fur seals and beavers. Criminal responsibility for illegal hunting usually ensues after administrative measures have been taken for a first violation. The hunting of animals and birds whose killing is completely prohibited is considered a crime regardless of administrative penalties.