Iltizam


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Iltizam

 

the tax-farm system in the Ottoman Empire, by which the feudal lord collected the ushr, a tithe paid in kind, and certain other taxes. The tax-farmers (or multazim) were usually important landowners, the governors of provinces, or other high officials, who resold—with a large profit—the right to collect the taxes to small tax-farmers. As a result, the actual rate of the tax significantly exceeded the sum paid into the treasury by the tax-farmer. The iltizam was officially abolished in the Ottoman Empire during the period of the Tanzimat, but in fact it was liquidated in Turkey only in 1925, along with the abolition of the ushr.

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The coinage, however, is misleading in the Arabic tradition where the term "existential" has come to mean less a Sartrean mode of ontological good faith than an ideological expression of 'commitment,' or iltizam. (2) For this reason, I argue these works be read simply as manifestations of a post-revolutionary mode, one that was conceived and executed in a dialectical stance to the state-sponsored imperatives of the 1950s and '60s to 'write' the revolution.
Iltizam Khas Untuk Wanita 5 speaks of the aim to 'democratise the political system to encourage more women leaders to step forward', and promise number two speaks to ensuring 'at least 30 percent women as decision makers at every level'.
Book IV deals with alimony (Al Nafaqa) which occurs through marriage (Al Zawaj), blood relationship (Al Qaraba) and contractual obligation (Al Iltizam) and which aims at protecting the divorced woman and guarantees her rights to alimony and child support.
Complemented by two journalist-litterateurs' testimonies especially solicited for this issue and an interview with an artist-poet who practiced art criticism, the studies draw on various theoretical approaches to cast fresh light on the Nahda and Arab literary modernity; iltizam and litterature engagee; the politics of translation and reception in cultural journalism; canon-formation in relation to journalism; gender and censorship of creative writers; the journalistic delineation of a literary generation's profile; and revolution and civil strife.
While conventional scholarship on the Ottoman Empire has argued that the timar system declined and came to be replaced by tax-farming (iltizam) after the sixteenth century, the fatwa literature makes numerous references to the timar system, indicating that it continued to thrive in certain parts of the empire.
iltizam), and (2) official recognition as a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, both of which attainments were non-military in character.
Talk is about complaints from Iltizam Akperli, Mohubbat Jahabbarova, Vahid Jafarov, Gaya Aliyev, Amirulla Dadashzade,
Atlantik Paktina alinmaklig[m]imiz yani Birlesik Amerika dahil olarak Bati Avrupa devletleriyle birlesmek meselesi otedenberi iltizam ettigimiz esasli politikadir.
Only some parts of the taxes were collected by the taxmen (multezim) through the tax farming system (Iltizam) (Pamuk, 2005).
Demetrios Papastamatiou, in his paper "Tax-Farming (Iltizam) and Collective Fiscal Resposibility (Maktu) in the Ottoman Southern Peloponnese in the Second Half of the Eighteenth Century," focuses on the financial activities of Panagiotis Benakis, a powerful kocabasi in Southern Peloponnese, in order to demonstrate the evaluation of the tax-farming system in connection with the new emerging realities of ayans and kocabasis.
Kibrisin kavanin ve sair mesveret meclislerinde Rumlar, Hukumetin hukuk, kuvvet ve nufuzuna, Kibrisdaki mevcudiyet ve menafine hucum ettikce Turkler daima Hukumet tarafini iltizam ve mudafaa ettiler.