Imandra

Imandra

(ē`məndrə), lake, 340 sq mi (881 sq km), NW European Russia, on the Kola Peninsula S of Murmansk. Deeply indented, it contains some 140 islands and receives about 20 large rivers. It empties into the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea through the Niva River.

Imandra

 

a lake in the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula, in Murmansk Oblast, RSFSR. Area, 812 sq km; depth, up to 67 m. Situated in a glacial-tectonic basin at an elevation of 126.7 m. The lake has a complex paddle shape. There are numerous coves that cut deep inland. Only the eastern (Khibin) shore in the northern area is straight. The lake has many islands, the largest of which is Erm-ostrov (26 sq km).

Lake Imandra consists of three regions. The northern area, Bol’shaia or Khibinskaia Imandra (area, 328 sq km; length, about 55 km; width, 3–5 km), and the central area, Iokostrav-skaia Imandra (area, 351 sq km, width, about 12 km), are connected by the shallow Iokostravskii Strait (700 m wide at its narrowest point). The western part, Babinskaia Imandra (area, 133 sq km), is connected to the central part by the short Shirokaia Salma Strait. Many rivers, including the Pirenga and Mon-che, empty into Lake Imandra on the western coast, forming intricate river-lake systems. The Niva River originates in Ioko-stravskaia Imandra. Imandra is fed by snow and rain waters. The highest water levels are at the end of June; the lowest, in April. It freezes in November and opens up in May. Imandra is rough. The waters of Imandra are distinguished by considerable transparency (up to 11 m).

The lake is rich in fish (whitefish, grayling, stone loach, and others). The Lapland Preserve is located west of Imandra. With the establishment in 1952 of Niva Hydroelectric Power Plant No. 1 on the Niva River, Imandra became a reservoir for long-term regulation. It has an area of 876 sq km and a volume of 11.2 cu km. The scope of fluctuations in water level increased from 95–109 cm to 200–205 cm. The lake is also used for flotation of logs and for water supply. The city of Monchegorsk is found on the northwest shore of Imandra in Monche Inlet.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

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Long-term modification of Arctic lake ecosystems: Reference condition, degradation under toxic impacts and recovery (case study Imandra Lakes, Russia).
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