# Immediate Inference

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Immediate Inference

in traditional logic, an inference from one premise or, in Aristotelian logic, a conclusion drawn from axioms or a premise “to which no other is prior.” The theory of immediate inference in any of the above senses did not fall directly within the scope of syllogistics, but it was believed that the theory must in some sense be prior to syllogistics. Moreover, it was in precisely this area that traditional logic proved to be “insufficiently formal”: the rules of immediate inference often were justified by reference to (intuitive) “self-evidence,” and concepts such as the “latent meaning of a proposition” played a significant role in the “theory of immediate inference.”

From the standpoint of contemporary formal (mathematical) logic, the number of premises of an inference cannot be a significant characteristic of the inference, inasmuch as any (finite) number of premises can always be replaced by one formula—their conjunction. An inference whose premises and conclusion are connected by a single application of some rule of inference, that is, by a relation of “immediate deducibility,” is sometimes called an immediate inference in contemporary logic. But even this concept cannot be considered essential for logic, inasmuch as the length of an inference (even with fixed premises and a fixed conclusion) is not an “invariant” of the inference: it depends on the method used to define the given logical calculus, although even this method of definition would not affect the deductive strength of the calculus.

IU. A. GASTEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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One immediate inference is that the extensive engagement between the two sides after the announcement of the regional strategy, which had deeply upset Pakistan, has failed to change the way Washington looks at the country that is so crucial to its endeavours in Afghanistan.
Lawes was substituted on 53 minutes in yesterday's Hurricanes draw, with the immediate inference that boss Gatland withdrew the 28-year-old to keep him fresh for the weekend.
The Hindu, one of India's largest dailies, said, "The immediate inference one can draw is that these are pressure tactics by Tehran, peeved by India's increasing crude imports from Iraq."
He then introduces what he calls an "absolute/assertoric proposition" (qadiyya haqq), or as he explains elsewhere, "first premises, true and intelligible through immediate inference" (al-muqaddimat al-uwal al-haqqiyya al-macqula bi-la tawassut), or, again, "first premises, evident, true and immediately intelligible" (al-muqaddimat al-ula al-wadiha al-haqqiyya al-macqula bi-la tawassut); that is to say tautological propositions.
Of course, humans and machines can and do short-circuit this infinite regress by the process of the immediate inference: We can just see that B is true given that (A implies B) and A are true.
The threat to an immediate inference to realism is of course the underdetermination thesis, but de Regt argues that, since 'it is not clear whether it is possible, at any given time, to generate infinitely many ontologically interesting incompatible yet empirically equivalent (or even evidentially) equivalent alternatives' (p.
This yields the immediate inference that Shakespeare wrote early versions of all three plays c.
N.: "Immediate inferences from quantified assertions" in The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 68(10), 2015, pp.

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