Richard Williams, CEO of Norwood Immunology, commented: "Given the potential role of virosomes in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, and their ability to achieve enhanced immune responses
, we believe that the potential applications for this technology are significant.
Applicants must justify how the proposed research is applicable to immune responses
against the listed agents.
Research suggests that GMCSF may stimulate immune responses
and improve viral control in HIV patients.
In all, these data suggest that the direct consequences of high level virus replication alone cannot account for the progressive CD4+ T cell depletion leading to AIDS, and that active antiviral cellular immune responses
may not always be beneficial.
In the Stanford study, injection of the combined preparation generated a more robust immune response
than possible from injection of just the cancer-associated protein.
When they were give 50 mg a day-way above USRDA levels but still quite safe-tor replenish all their vitamin B-6 stores, their immune responses
were boosted over the levels they had before they entered the study.
For a T-cell vaccine to be effective, it should be able to induce cytotoxic and regulatory immune responses
against the pathogenic T-cells.
Each virus has a certain fitness, and the dynamics of the host immune response
ensure that the virus needs to keep "moving.
These primed cells are then re-administered to the patient to stimulate a specific immune response
to the cancer antigen(s) contained in the vaccine.
The corollary is that not all immune responses
will result in allergic sensitization and adverse health effects.
In fact, researchers are still trying to understand how to reconcile this emerging evidence with the past observation that people who have been infected with HIV for long periods with no signs of developing AIDS actually have stronger-than-normal immune responses
, including immune activation, against HIV.
Eric Rosenberg and Bruce Walker of Massachusetts General Hospital, shows that all of the people in their study who took Remune developed strong anti HIV immune responses
during a planned treatment interruption, while none of the people who only took antiviral medicine developed these responses.